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, Vitins, Basil J., Erath, Alexander L., Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Erath, Alexander L., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Integration of a Capacity Constrained Workplace Choice Model: Recent Developments and Applications for an Agent-Based Simulation in Singapore
Kurzbeschreibung: Destination choice models can be embedded in travel demand models to understand travel behavior and forecast future scenarios. Utility-based destination choice models can account for individual travel behavior and are therefore suitable for agent-based models. Accounting for destination capacities is also in line with the agent-based theory. Therefore, this paper addresses the possibility and impact of introducing capacity constraints and their effect on choice behavior, as well as the feasibility to apply such an approach in agent-based micro-simulations with individual specific characteristics for each agent.

This paper describes a workplace choice model and its application in a large-scale simulation of Singapore. One methodological and one technical achievement are highlighted in this paper. Regarding the methodological progress, capacity limitations are introduced at workplaces, and a methodology based on shadow prices is employed to consider the capacity limitations within the choice model applications. A robust optimization methodology efficiently assigns the commuters to workplaces while respecting the individual preferences of commuters. The technical achievement profits from recent computational advances. The workplace choice model is estimated with a comprehensive utility function on a large data set and 103 destinations and applied and cross-checked on the entire population. A reasonable model fit and robust parameters are achieved by obviating sampling techniques. The proposed methodology is efficiently applied for commuting trips with minor travel time changes compared to a reference sample.2
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 1106
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1443612032
Nebis System Nummer: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Evaluation and Reliability of Shape Grammars for Urban Planning and Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: Shape grammars are increasingly applied in urban simulations and are promising tools for urban design, e.g., in procedural modeling. Shape grammars are interdisciplinary, straightforward, understandable planning tools, which potentially have the chance to overcome the complexity of urban design. Applications of grammars and rule-based methods could be found in cognate fields of architecture, urban and transport planning, geometry, and also in mathematics, and computer sciences.
Applications of shape grammars are described exemplarily for various fields of science. It is found that often a profound evaluation of the effect of certain shape grammar rules is missing in literature. Therefore, a set of four approaches is proposed in this chapter (1) to establish theory of grammars and rule-based approaches, (2) to evaluate existing shape grammar rules, (3) to generate and extract new shape grammars, and (4) to verify complex system wide shape grammars. The four approaches are exemplarily applied in the field of road transport network design; however, migration to urban planning and architecture seems promising for future applications. Reliability is addressed in the evaluation methods to tackle uncertainties in planning.2
Buchtitel: Future City Architecture for Optimal Living
Publiziert in: Springer Optimization and its Applications
Band: 102
Seiten: 161 - 181
ISBN: 978-3-319-15029-1, 978-3-319-15030-7
ISSN: 1931-6828
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: New York , NY
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Shape grammar, Rule, Intersection type choice, Urban Simulation, Delay, Reliability, Network, Optimization, Meshedness
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Shape grammar, Rule, Intersection type choice, Urban Simulation, Delay, Reliability, Network, Optimization, Meshedness
DBID Quelle: FORM-1403094219, WOS-000364746200010
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15030-7_9
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape Grammars in Transport and Urban Design – Review, Terminology, Assessment, and Application
Kurzbeschreibung: Shape grammars for urban design have attracted much interest in research and practice. Transport and urban planners increasingly deploy shape grammars especially in models and simulations. However, little is known about the effectiveness of shape grammar in transport networks and urban environments. The authors posit that grammars require specified and corresponding objectives and application specifications for enhanced implementation. The proposed methodology aims at a future development of a robust and effective language for e.g. sustainable urban development. The proposed methodology for grammar assessment bases on elasticities. Elasticities allow comprehensive comparisons and verification between grammar rules. First, the paper reviews and highlights the key achievements and applications of shape grammars in cognate fields of science. Terminology sheds light on the definitions of most relevant terms. The consecutive section differentiates methodological approaches in grammar design assessment, and emphasizes a standardized approach for shape grammars developments. The paper concludes with a detailed example for grammar rule assessment, and potential future research.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Eventname: World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research (WSTLUR)
Eventdatum: 24-17 June 2014
Ort: Delft, The Netherlands
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1403094643
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape Grammars Overview and Assessment for Transport and Urban Design - Review, Terminology, Assessment, and Application
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publiziert in: Journal of transport and land use
ISSN: 1938-7849
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Minneapolis
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1415030324
Nebis System Nummer: 010198325
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Urban Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
ETH Dissertationsnummer: 22165
DBID Quelle: FORM-1415030013
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-010279005
Nebis System Nummer: 010279005
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Transport Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: London, UK
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1403096601
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Intersection Type Choice in Road Net-work Generation
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Unpublished
Eventname: Chair of Sociology, in Particular of Modeling and Simulation
Eventdatum: January 2014
Ort: Zürich, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1403096370
, Vitins, Basil Janis, Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos, Aliaga, Daniel, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil Janis, Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos, Aliaga, Daniel, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Evaluation of Shape Grammar Rules for Urban Transport Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: Shape grammar rules are increasingly applied in urban simulation. Even though many network design standards propose shape grammar rules, little is known of the measurable impact of these rules on the performance of transport networks. This paper provides a general definition of shape grammar rules for transport network design. Different rules are evaluated regarding a comprehensive objective function. Networks are designed and simulated on featureless planes to avoid a bias due to history. Findings are compared with real-world case studies. Different network characteristics are evaluated in this paper. The densities of network loops are high in all generated networks, and comparable with real-world grids and medieval fabrics. The average length of network loops decreases as an inverse function of road density, which is in line with graph theory. Intersection density is proportional to the network length. The average number or arms of an intersection depends on road density. A denser network has a disproportionately higher density of 4 arm intersections, compared to less denser networks. Additionally, different road types are assigned to each road segment. Hierarchical road type distribution has a significant but low influence on network user costs. Terrain boundaries, as well as predefined roads (e.g. boulevards) increase average user costs. However, the average increase strongly depends on the number of bridges and on the boulevard capacity. The results show that shape grammar rules for transport network design can be evaluated to increase the understanding of their impacts, which supports future design standards.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 13-17, 2013
Ort: Washington, D.C.
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1353322589
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Adaptive Network Design versus Rigid Patterns
Untertitel: Can We Do Better than a Grid?
Kurzbeschreibung: Numerous different transport networks were built in the past centuries, lasting as remaining rigid structures in an urban plan. However, almost every preferred pattern got revised over time, leading to a reformulation of the network and its topology. In recent years, computational efficiency allows the construction of detailed models of transport networks, to predict and optimize efficiency of transport networks. Different rigid patterns are compared against optimized networks, and evaluated in detail. The proposed methodology includes, beside standard road volume-delay-functions, the turn movements of intersections in detail. The major intersection types are evaluated regarding turn delay in an isolated and network environment. This paper compares rigid network patterns with a more generic design approach. Different network patterns result in considerable different travel costs. The proposed optimized approach levels or outperforms the patterns depending on the intersection type. However, optimized networks remain adaptivity, e.g. for terrain constraints.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Ascona
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammar, Rule, Pattern, Network, IACGA
Eventname: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Eventdatum: April 24-26, 2013
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammar, Rule, Pattern, Network, IACGA
DBID Quelle: FORM-1367331026
, Vitins, Basil J., 2013 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Netzoptimierung IV: Problem – Zielfunktion – Algorithmus – Beispiele
Publiziert in: Diploma of Advanced Studies (DAS)
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Sprache: German
DBID Quelle: FORM-1403095957
, Hackney, Jeremy, Vitins, Basil, Bodenmann, Balz R., 2013 >>
Autor(en): Hackney, Jeremy, Vitins, Basil, Bodenmann, Balz R.
Titel: Market-Clearing Models in FaLC
Kurzbeschreibung: Decisions regarding the (re-) use of land is a negotiation between representatives of a broad group of stakeholders, bounded by the market prices of the land and its improvements and the regulations that shape further development. The costs resulting from transport and land use, such as greenhouse gas emissions, noise, and loss of habitat, are as important to these stakeholders as benefits like improved travel utility and synergistic relationships between collocated firms. The consequences of actions in this complex system are unclear and emergent, the information about the system often asymmetric across stakeholders. For a fair process, clear information and well-justified prognoses about the effects of land use and transport decisions need to be equally available to all interested and affected parties. Models can illustrate possible outcomes of plausible scenarios. Currently available models of integrated transport and land use change (MTLUC) are complicated to run and require years of data collection in order to set up the scenarios, which means that they are employed only retroactively or on very large projects with long development horizons, and their results can only be accessed with certain technical expertise. "FaLC" (the Facility Location Choice Simulation Tool) is the working title for a simplified, user-friendly, open-source, agent-based simulation tool with lower data requirements which is being developed in a joint project between the Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT) at ETH Zurich and the private firm, regioConcept. FaLC will support operational and research models of exogenous influences on regional development, with greatly reduced costs for scenario preparation and shorter run times. FaLC synthesizes populations of individual Persons, Households, and Businesses within municipalities, and simulates their interdependent development in time. Property market simulations at different degrees of spatial aggregation were required for further refinement of these interdependencies, particularly with respect to the use and modification of geographic structure. This paper reports on the architecture of the FaLC land market model and demonstrates two models for determining the market-clearing prices and spatial distributions of households at different spatial aggregations. A brief review of the state of the art in land market modelling provides the basis for the model architecture and the typeof simulation chosen for illustration. A conclusion indicates the priorities for further development of the FaLC land market model.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Eventdatum: April 24-26, 2013
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1367321007
, Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil J., Vecchi, I., Zeiler, A., Hackney, Jeremy, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Autor(en): Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil J., Vecchi, I., Zeiler, A., Hackney, Jeremy, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: FaLC
Untertitel: Implementation of a Land-Use Transport Interaction Model for Switzerland
Kurzbeschreibung: FaLC (Facility Location Choice Simulation Tool) is an integrated microsimulation system for planning and analysis of urban development, incorporating interactions between land use, trans- portation, economy and public policy. The aim of FaLC is to develop a tool to answer different questions for scientific as well as for planning purposes. This blueprint gives partners and po- tential partners a rough outline of the basic elements of the project and, additionally, is a guide- line for the development team.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Land use model, Facility location choice, Simulation, RegioConcept, Herisau, IVT, ETH Zurich
Eventname: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Eventdatum: April 24-26, 2013
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Land use model, Facility location choice, Simulation, RegioConcept, Herisau, IVT, ETH Zurich
DBID Quelle: FORM-1367315840
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape grammars for intersection type choice in road network generation
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems continue to grow worldwide due to population growth and migration. Therefore, urban design guidelines are strongly needed for planning purposes. However, current network and urban design guidelines lack of a fundamental research bases regarding design recommenda- tion. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements and land used types are added to each other. Shape grammars have the advantage of their ease of application in urban and interactive planning, their comprehensiveness, and their low computational requirements. Previous work showed the impact of hierarchical shape grammar rules for road networks. It could be shown a significant impact on hierarchical road type implementation. This paper especially sheds light on various intersection types and the corresponding expected delays for the road users. It is quantitatively shown that intersection delays mostly depend on their number of arms and the current through traffic shares. Propositions for shape grammars and future standards are made regarding intersection type alignment. The proposed alignments are evaluated in virtual networks, generated on featureless planes. The generation of virtual network layouts respects the shape grammars in consideration. The virtual networks are compared regarding the corresponding shape grammars. The results show the high performance of roundabouts for variable demand. The proposed Matrix shape grammar slightly reduce network performance compared to the most optimal intersection alignment in exchange for a simple shape grammar rule. Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars for land use interactions, and growth processes.2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-05-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network
Eventname: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Eventdatum: May 2-4, 2012
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
Schlüsselwort: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network
DBID Quelle: FORM-1335972951
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007251014
Nebis System Nummer: 007251014
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 91th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 22-26, 2012
Ort: Washington, D.C.
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1328214213
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Washington, D.C.
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 91th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 22-26, 2012
Ort: Washington, D.C.
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1327672875
, Vitins, Basil J., Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos A., Aliaga, Daniel G., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos A., Aliaga, Daniel G., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Evaluation of Shape Grammar Rules for Urban Transport Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: Shape grammar rules are increasingly applied in urban simulation. Even though many network design standards propose shape grammar rules, little is known of the measurable impact of these rules on the performance of transport networks. This paper provides a general definition of shape grammar rules for transport network design. Different rules are evaluated regarding a comprehensive objective function. Networks are designed and simulated on featureless planes to avoid a bias due to history. Findings are compared with real-world case studies. The densities of network cycles are high in all generated networks, and comparable with real-world grids and medieval fabrics. The average length of network cycles decreases as an inverse function of road density, which is in line with graph theory. Intersection density is proportional to the network length. The average number or arms of an intersection depends on road density. A denser network has a disproportionately higher density of 4 arm intersections, compared to less denser networks. Hierarchical road type choice has a significant but low influence on network user costs. Additionally, terrain boundaries, as well as predefined roads (e.g. boulevards) increase average user costs. However, the average increase strongly depends on the number of bridges and on the boulevard capacity. The results show that shape grammar rules for transport network design can be evaluated to increase the understanding of their impacts, which supports future design standards.
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 792
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1343848339
Nebis System Nummer: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., Dubernet, Thibaut, Horni, Andreas, Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Dubernet, Thibaut, Horni, Andreas, Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: MATSim Moduswahl Untersuchungen
Publiziert in: final report to VW AG, Wolfsburg
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Sprache: German
DBID Quelle: FORM-1357731029
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape grammars for road transport network design
Untertitel: The role of intersection types
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems continue to grow worldwide due to population growth and migration. Urban design guidelines are urgently needed for planning purposes. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements and land used types are added to each other. Shape grammars have the advantage of their ease of application in urban and interactive planning, their comprehensiveness, and their low computational requirements. Previous work showed the impact of road type shape grammar rules for road networks.
A two phase approach is proposed where phase 1 copes with road design and phase 2 with intersection type choice. The two consecutive phases are meaningful considering the results of this paper. Additionally, this paper sheds light on various intersection types and the corresponding expected delays for the road users. It is quantitatively shown that intersection delays considerably depend on the current through traffic shares. Propositions for shape grammars are made regarding intersection type choice. The proposed intersection type choice is evaluated in virtual networks, generated on featureless planes. The results show high performance for roundabouts and variable demand. The proposed shape grammar slightly reduce network performance compared to the most optimal intersection alignment in exchange for a simple shape grammar rule.
Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars for urban areas, and growth processes.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network, Urban, Simulation
Eventname: 12th International Conference on Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning
Eventdatum: August 27-29, 2012
Ort: Eindhoven, Netherlands
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
Schlüsselwort: Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network, Urban, Simulation
DBID Quelle: FORM-1346872374
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Intersections in Urban Network Design
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: LATSIS Symposium 2012 : 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems
Eventdatum: September 4-7, 2012
Ort: Lausanne, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1347880261
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Intersections in Urban Network Design
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: LATSIS Symposium 2012 : 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems
Eventdatum: September 4-7, 2012
Ort: Lausanne, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1346395267, FORM-1347457443
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Road and Intersection Typology for Urban Simulations
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 797
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Accepted
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1344852707
Nebis System Nummer: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Grammatiken für Netzdesign
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: METRON Seminar
Eventdatum: February 2012
Ort: Brugg, Belgium
Sprache: German
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1346396895
, Vitins, B., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, B., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today and depend essentially on efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains in urban systems can be achieved by improving transport infrastructure and thus reducing overall costs of travel. Shape grammars provide a solid foundation for coherent transport network design, and concurrently reduce complexity of planning processes. Shape grammars describe how network elements are joined with each other. However, only a few are listed in standards for network design without any fundamental research basis. Therefore, shape grammars remain vague and the standards lack of clear recommendations. In this paper, shape grammars for hierarchical network design are examined for different transport networks. The investigated shape grammars include different link and intersection types. The network models are artificially created to avoid a bias in the results due to history. The networks are optimized regarding an infrastructure and user cost function. Shape grammars significantly affect transport network performance. As expected, the distribution of link types affects the network efficiency. However, intersection types and the corresponding delays in travel time have a remarkable and even larger effect on network performance. In the future, more shape grammars will be examined to shed light on the impacts of relevant grammars for transport network design and to derive clear recommendations for urban planners.
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 688
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 22-26, 2012
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Internally reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1312119343
Nebis System Nummer: 004231702
, Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil, 2012 >>
Autor(en): Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil
Titel: Implementation of a land use transport interaction model for experimental game simulations
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Eventdatum: May 2-4, 2012
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1338371263
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Hierarchical Transport Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today, and therefore face the task to build efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains are due to infrastructure investments in urban systems. A shape grammar based approach is proposed to contribute to more efficient networks by reducing the enormous and complex search space in the design of a new transport network. This paper sheds light on impacts of different shape grammars in network design. The proposed approach applies a network generation algorithm based on the integration of ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). For network design applications, the proposed algorithm is able to overcome restrictions of both ACO and GA, e.g. in network size and computational time, and is concurrently computationally fast. The algorithm generates best transport network layouts given a defined objective function, including demand weighted travel times. A budget constraint provides an upper bound for infrastructure investment. Shape grammars for hierarchical network design are respected during the generation of the network layouts. Different initial network layouts are tested. It can be shown that shape grammars can affect the resulting transport networks. Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars, variable demand and growth processes, to verify and complete the results gained.2
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 681
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Shape, Grammars, Rules, Transport, Transportation, Network, Design, Generation, Integrated, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
Eventname: 11th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2011)
Eventdatum: May 11-13, 2011
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
Schlüsselwort: Shape, Grammars, Rules, Transport, Transportation, Network, Design, Generation, Integrated, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
DBID Quelle: FORM-1334046636
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006467126
Nebis System Nummer: 006467126
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today, and therefore face the task to build efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains are due to infrastructure investments in urban systems. Economies benefit and rely on efficient transport systems, agglomeration processes and low trading costs. Energy consumption and emissions can be reduced considerably with appropriate network design. This research is motivated by the need of coherent methods for planning efficient, reliable and sustainable urban transport systems.
A grammar based approach is proposed to contribute to more efficient networks by reducing the enormous and complex search space in the design of a new transport network. Network grammar rules describe how streets, intersections and eventually transit lines of certain types or hierarchical levels may be added to and joined with each other; for example, if a four-lane road can be crossed by a local access road, or if a round-about can have five or more arms. Grammar rules are implicit and explicit in the relevant guidelines and norms, which regulate the design process today. There currently exist several advisory standards for transport network design in different countries, but most of them are without a fundamental research basis, remaining vague in their recommendations.
Recent developments in urban modeling and planning increasingly provide procedural methods because of their well-defined and straightforward application possibilities, allowing implementations in interactive planning tools and computer models, which go beyond current planning approaches. Additionally, grammar rules enable the practitioner to design a network within a reasonable amount of time and effort. This paper sheds light on impacts of set of different grammar rules. The impacts are estimated from a new algorithm for network generation, an area currently under-researched.
The proposed approach applies a network generation algorithm based on the integration of ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). For network design applications, the proposed algorithm is able to overcome restrictions of both ACO and GA, e.g. in network size, and is concurrently computationally fast. The algorithm generates best transport network layouts give a defined objective function. Different objective functions and grammar rules can be tested for their impact on the generation process of transport network layouts. The current objective function includes demand weighted travel times and travel distances as a measure of costs. An accessibility measure is implemented as an alternative for comparison reasons. A budget constraint provides an upper bound for infrastructure investment. Grammar rules are respected during the generation of network layouts. Currently examined grammar rules encompass rules on adjacent links, which determine permitted adjacent link types and the intersection types, and the number of arms allowed for each intersection type. The amount of the each land use types is predefined but alignment of the parcels in space is kept variable for optimization purposes. The resulting network layouts are evaluated with the objective functions and compared. Comparison of the outcomes provides new important evidence on the grammar rules and their impact on network design. The impacts of different grammar rules are summarized and suggestions are provided for potential guidelines.
This paper is the first comprehensive effort to account for the impacts of grammar rules, which is missing in the literature and the professional norms and guidelines. The chosen approach is independent of case studies and applicable to any urban system. Future research is proposed, accounting for additional grammar rules, for public transportation and growth processes, but also transfers to different field of network design, such as pipeline networks and telecommunication.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: European Transport Conference 2011 (ETC 2011)
Eventdatum: October 10-12, 2011
Ort: Glasgow, UK
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1324836752
, Vitins, Basil J., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: An Integrated and Adaptive Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithm for Transport Network Design
Kurzbeschreibung: Urban systems emerge and grow considerably in many countries today and in near future, and therefore also the necessity for efficient transport networks. This research is motivated by the need of methodologies for planning efficient, reliable and sustainable urban transport systems. Already existing approaches are summarized. The proposed optimization algorithm is capable of designing an entire urban road network. The network's efficiency is measured with a computationally costly objective function (deterministic user equilibrium), including generalized costs of travel and an infrastructure budget constraint. The efficiency is maximized during the network design process. The optimization algorithm is initialized with a large set of candidate links describing a large search space. The algorithm complements strategies of an ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to design the transport network. The learning ability is retained, which is prominent in an ACO. A recombination method, derived from the GA approach, focuses on transport network characteristics. The algorithm is detailed, and tested in several case studies, including real world examples, to design and evaluate road networks. The algorithm is extended for network shape grammars because they have increasingly gained in importance in urban planning and simulations. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements of different types are added to each other. The results show that shape grammars can be incorporated in the algorithm and that they considerably influence the resulting networks, compared to networks excluding shape grammars. Potential applications in other fields of network construction are likely.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Transportation and Logistics, Network Design, Artificial Intelligence
Eventname: International Conference on Operations Research, Sustainable OR 2011
Eventdatum: August 30 - September 2, 2011
Ort: Zürich, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
Schlüsselwort: Transportation and Logistics, Network Design, Artificial Intelligence
DBID Quelle: FORM-1324838133
, Vitins, Basil J., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Transport Network Generation and Shape Grammars Development for Urban Systems
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: Equilibrium Sorting in Urban Systems Workshop
Eventdatum: March 2011
Ort: Zurich, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1324838488
, Vitins, B.J., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, K.W., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, B.J., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, K.W.
Titel: Shape Grammars for Passenger Transport Network Generation including Land Use Aspects
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 11th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2011)
Eventdatum: May 11-14, 2011
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Unknown
DBID Quelle: FORM-1305895279
, Horni, A., Vitins, B., Axhausen, K.W., 2011 >>
Autor(en): Horni, A., Vitins, B., Axhausen, K.W.
Titel: The Zurich Scenario
Untertitel: A Technical Overview
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 687
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Internally reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1312119458
Nebis System Nummer: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Titel: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Untertitel: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 645
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2010-01-01
Publikations-Status: Neuenburg
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Internally reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1286059190
, Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Autor(en): Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Titel: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Untertitel: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Publiziert in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Band: 647
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2010-01-01
Publikations-Status: Neuenburg
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Internally reviewed
DBID Quelle: FORM-1286058905
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2009 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Titel: Optimization of Large Transport Networks Using the Ant Colony Heuristic
Kurzbeschreibung: Long-term transportation planning for larger regions must assess synergies and interference among sets of projects. The objective is the maximization of the overall benefit within specific budget restrictions by finding the most favorable bundle of projects, that is, solving the network design problem. For large numbers of projects, complete enumeration of all combinations is not feasible for detailed networks. The ant colony heuristic is suitable for this kind of problem. According to our knowledge, this article presents the above-mentioned heuristic's first application to a realistically sized network. A detailed multimodal network assignment of a substantial Swiss city provides the basis for calculations. First, each infrastructure project is assessed using a cost–benefit analysis. The ant colony heuristic is then successfully executed and the bundles are evaluated. The article provides new insights into applications of the heuristic in large networks and focuses on problematic calibration details as well as the choice of objective function. Suggestions are made for general applications and further research.
Publiziert in: Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering
Band: 24
Ausgabe: 1
Seiten: 1 - 14
ISSN: 1093-9687
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2009-01-01
Publikations-Status: Boston, MA
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
Review-Status: Peer reviewed
DBID Quelle: PP-33336
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2008.00569.x
Nebis System Nummer: 005238657
, Vitins, Basil J., 2006 >>
Autor(en): Vitins, Basil J.
Titel: Optimierung der Verkehrsinfrastruktur der Region Bern mit der Ant Colony Heuristic
Kurzbeschreibung: Bei der Erstellung eines Verkehrskonzeptes müssen in der Verkehrsplanung nicht nur einzel- ne Massnahmen bewertet werden, sondern auch ihre Kombinationen unter Berücksichtigung von Synergien und Gegenläufigkeiten. Dabei gilt es, das optimale Massnahmenbündel zu fin- den. Diese Fragestellung wird in dieser Arbeit durch das Network Design Problem dargestellt und mit der Ant Colony Heuristic gelöst. Zunächst werden einzelne Verkehrsprojekte der Re- gion Bern in ein Gesamtverkehrsmodell integriert und bewertet. In einem zweiten Teil wird die Ant Colony Heuristic angewendet und gemäss einer Zielfunktion ein optimales Bündel er- stellt. Die Ant Colony Heuristic wurde erfolgreich implementiert und kalibriert. Die Resultate zeigen, dass die angewendete Zielfunktion und die Verkehrsmittelwahl Funktion für die opti- mierte Massnahmenkombination entscheidend sind. Die Massnahmenkombination wie auch die Einzelnutzen geben weit reichende Einblicke in die veränderten Streckenbelastungen und Verkehrsverteilung der Region Bern.2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2006-12-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Network design, Netzwerk, Optimierung, Ant colony, Ant system, Heuristic, Algorithmus, Bündel, Kombination, Massnahmen, Bewertung, Bern, Verkehrsplanung
Sprache: German
Schlüsselwort: Network design, Netzwerk, Optimierung, Ant colony, Ant system, Heuristic, Algorithmus, Bündel, Kombination, Massnahmen, Bewertung, Bern, Verkehrsplanung
DBID Quelle: FORM-1321986600

 

 

 

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