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, Vitins, Basil J., Erath, Alexander L., Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Erath, Alexander L., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Integration of a Capacity Constrained Workplace Choice Model: Recent Developments and Applications for an Agent-Based Simulation in Singapore
Abstract: Destination choice models can be embedded in travel demand models to understand travel behavior and forecast future scenarios. Utility-based destination choice models can account for individual travel behavior and are therefore suitable for agent-based models. Accounting for destination capacities is also in line with the agent-based theory. Therefore, this paper addresses the possibility and impact of introducing capacity constraints and their effect on choice behavior, as well as the feasibility to apply such an approach in agent-based micro-simulations with individual specific characteristics for each agent.

This paper describes a workplace choice model and its application in a large-scale simulation of Singapore. One methodological and one technical achievement are highlighted in this paper. Regarding the methodological progress, capacity limitations are introduced at workplaces, and a methodology based on shadow prices is employed to consider the capacity limitations within the choice model applications. A robust optimization methodology efficiently assigns the commuters to workplaces while respecting the individual preferences of commuters. The technical achievement profits from recent computational advances. The workplace choice model is estimated with a comprehensive utility function on a large data set and 103 destinations and applied and cross-checked on the entire population. A reasonable model fit and robust parameters are achieved by obviating sampling techniques. The proposed methodology is efficiently applied for commuting trips with minor travel time changes compared to a reference sample.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 1106
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1443612032
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Evaluation and Reliability of Shape Grammars for Urban Planning and Network Design
Abstract: Shape grammars are increasingly applied in urban simulations and are promising tools for urban design, e.g., in procedural modeling. Shape grammars are interdisciplinary, straightforward, understandable planning tools, which potentially have the chance to overcome the complexity of urban design. Applications of grammars and rule-based methods could be found in cognate fields of architecture, urban and transport planning, geometry, and also in mathematics, and computer sciences.
Applications of shape grammars are described exemplarily for various fields of science. It is found that often a profound evaluation of the effect of certain shape grammar rules is missing in literature. Therefore, a set of four approaches is proposed in this chapter (1) to establish theory of grammars and rule-based approaches, (2) to evaluate existing shape grammar rules, (3) to generate and extract new shape grammars, and (4) to verify complex system wide shape grammars. The four approaches are exemplarily applied in the field of road transport network design; however, migration to urban planning and architecture seems promising for future applications. Reliability is addressed in the evaluation methods to tackle uncertainties in planning.2
Book title: Future City Architecture for Optimal Living
Published in: Springer Optimization and its Applications
Volume: 102
Pages: 161 - 181
ISBN: 978-3-319-15029-1, 978-3-319-15030-7
ISSN: 1931-6828
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: New York , NY
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Shape grammar, Rule, Intersection type choice, Urban Simulation, Delay, Reliability, Network, Optimization, Meshedness
Language: English
Keyword: Shape grammar, Rule, Intersection type choice, Urban Simulation, Delay, Reliability, Network, Optimization, Meshedness
DBID source: FORM-1403094219, WOS-000364746200010
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-15030-7_9
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape Grammars in Transport and Urban Design – Review, Terminology, Assessment, and Application
Abstract: Shape grammars for urban design have attracted much interest in research and practice. Transport and urban planners increasingly deploy shape grammars especially in models and simulations. However, little is known about the effectiveness of shape grammar in transport networks and urban environments. The authors posit that grammars require specified and corresponding objectives and application specifications for enhanced implementation. The proposed methodology aims at a future development of a robust and effective language for e.g. sustainable urban development. The proposed methodology for grammar assessment bases on elasticities. Elasticities allow comprehensive comparisons and verification between grammar rules. First, the paper reviews and highlights the key achievements and applications of shape grammars in cognate fields of science. Terminology sheds light on the definitions of most relevant terms. The consecutive section differentiates methodological approaches in grammar design assessment, and emphasizes a standardized approach for shape grammars developments. The paper concludes with a detailed example for grammar rule assessment, and potential future research.
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Event name: World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research (WSTLUR)
Event date: 24-17 June 2014
Place: Delft, The Netherlands
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1403094643
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape Grammars Overview and Assessment for Transport and Urban Design - Review, Terminology, Assessment, and Application
Abstract: 2
Published in: Journal of transport and land use
ISSN: 1938-7849
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Minneapolis
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1415030324
Nebis system number: 010198325
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Shape Grammars for Urban Network Design
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
ETH dissertation number: 22165
DBID source: FORM-1415030013
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-010279005
Nebis system number: 010279005
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Shape Grammars for Transport Network Design
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: London, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1403096601
, Vitins, Basil J., 2014 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Shape Grammars for Intersection Type Choice in Road Net-work Generation
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: Chair of Sociology, in Particular of Modeling and Simulation
Event date: January 2014
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1403096370
, Vitins, Basil Janis, Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos, Aliaga, Daniel, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil Janis, Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos, Aliaga, Daniel, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Evaluation of Shape Grammar Rules for Urban Transport Network Design
Abstract: Shape grammar rules are increasingly applied in urban simulation. Even though many network design standards propose shape grammar rules, little is known of the measurable impact of these rules on the performance of transport networks. This paper provides a general definition of shape grammar rules for transport network design. Different rules are evaluated regarding a comprehensive objective function. Networks are designed and simulated on featureless planes to avoid a bias due to history. Findings are compared with real-world case studies. Different network characteristics are evaluated in this paper. The densities of network loops are high in all generated networks, and comparable with real-world grids and medieval fabrics. The average length of network loops decreases as an inverse function of road density, which is in line with graph theory. Intersection density is proportional to the network length. The average number or arms of an intersection depends on road density. A denser network has a disproportionately higher density of 4 arm intersections, compared to less denser networks. Additionally, different road types are assigned to each road segment. Hierarchical road type distribution has a significant but low influence on network user costs. Terrain boundaries, as well as predefined roads (e.g. boulevards) increase average user costs. However, the average increase strongly depends on the number of bridges and on the boulevard capacity. The results show that shape grammar rules for transport network design can be evaluated to increase the understanding of their impacts, which supports future design standards.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, D.C.
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1353322589
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Adaptive Network Design versus Rigid Patterns
Subtitle: Can We Do Better than a Grid?
Abstract: Numerous different transport networks were built in the past centuries, lasting as remaining rigid structures in an urban plan. However, almost every preferred pattern got revised over time, leading to a reformulation of the network and its topology. In recent years, computational efficiency allows the construction of detailed models of transport networks, to predict and optimize efficiency of transport networks. Different rigid patterns are compared against optimized networks, and evaluated in detail. The proposed methodology includes, beside standard road volume-delay-functions, the turn movements of intersections in detail. The major intersection types are evaluated regarding turn delay in an isolated and network environment. This paper compares rigid network patterns with a more generic design approach. Different network patterns result in considerable different travel costs. The proposed optimized approach levels or outperforms the patterns depending on the intersection type. However, optimized networks remain adaptivity, e.g. for terrain constraints.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammar, Rule, Pattern, Network, IACGA
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammar, Rule, Pattern, Network, IACGA
DBID source: FORM-1367331026
, Vitins, Basil J., 2013 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Netzoptimierung IV: Problem – Zielfunktion – Algorithmus – Beispiele
Published in: Diploma of Advanced Studies (DAS)
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1403095957
, Hackney, Jeremy, Vitins, Basil, Bodenmann, Balz R., 2013 >>
Author(s): Hackney, Jeremy, Vitins, Basil, Bodenmann, Balz R.
Title: Market-Clearing Models in FaLC
Abstract: Decisions regarding the (re-) use of land is a negotiation between representatives of a broad group of stakeholders, bounded by the market prices of the land and its improvements and the regulations that shape further development. The costs resulting from transport and land use, such as greenhouse gas emissions, noise, and loss of habitat, are as important to these stakeholders as benefits like improved travel utility and synergistic relationships between collocated firms. The consequences of actions in this complex system are unclear and emergent, the information about the system often asymmetric across stakeholders. For a fair process, clear information and well-justified prognoses about the effects of land use and transport decisions need to be equally available to all interested and affected parties. Models can illustrate possible outcomes of plausible scenarios. Currently available models of integrated transport and land use change (MTLUC) are complicated to run and require years of data collection in order to set up the scenarios, which means that they are employed only retroactively or on very large projects with long development horizons, and their results can only be accessed with certain technical expertise. "FaLC" (the Facility Location Choice Simulation Tool) is the working title for a simplified, user-friendly, open-source, agent-based simulation tool with lower data requirements which is being developed in a joint project between the Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT) at ETH Zurich and the private firm, regioConcept. FaLC will support operational and research models of exogenous influences on regional development, with greatly reduced costs for scenario preparation and shorter run times. FaLC synthesizes populations of individual Persons, Households, and Businesses within municipalities, and simulates their interdependent development in time. Property market simulations at different degrees of spatial aggregation were required for further refinement of these interdependencies, particularly with respect to the use and modification of geographic structure. This paper reports on the architecture of the FaLC land market model and demonstrates two models for determining the market-clearing prices and spatial distributions of households at different spatial aggregations. A brief review of the state of the art in land market modelling provides the basis for the model architecture and the typeof simulation chosen for illustration. A conclusion indicates the priorities for further development of the FaLC land market model.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1367321007
, Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil J., Vecchi, I., Zeiler, A., Hackney, Jeremy, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil J., Vecchi, I., Zeiler, A., Hackney, Jeremy, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: FaLC
Subtitle: Implementation of a Land-Use Transport Interaction Model for Switzerland
Abstract: FaLC (Facility Location Choice Simulation Tool) is an integrated microsimulation system for planning and analysis of urban development, incorporating interactions between land use, trans- portation, economy and public policy. The aim of FaLC is to develop a tool to answer different questions for scientific as well as for planning purposes. This blueprint gives partners and po- tential partners a rough outline of the basic elements of the project and, additionally, is a guide- line for the development team.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Land use model, Facility location choice, Simulation, RegioConcept, Herisau, IVT, ETH Zurich
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Land use model, Facility location choice, Simulation, RegioConcept, Herisau, IVT, ETH Zurich
DBID source: FORM-1367315840
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape grammars for intersection type choice in road network generation
Abstract: Urban systems continue to grow worldwide due to population growth and migration. Therefore, urban design guidelines are strongly needed for planning purposes. However, current network and urban design guidelines lack of a fundamental research bases regarding design recommenda- tion. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements and land used types are added to each other. Shape grammars have the advantage of their ease of application in urban and interactive planning, their comprehensiveness, and their low computational requirements. Previous work showed the impact of hierarchical shape grammar rules for road networks. It could be shown a significant impact on hierarchical road type implementation. This paper especially sheds light on various intersection types and the corresponding expected delays for the road users. It is quantitatively shown that intersection delays mostly depend on their number of arms and the current through traffic shares. Propositions for shape grammars and future standards are made regarding intersection type alignment. The proposed alignments are evaluated in virtual networks, generated on featureless planes. The generation of virtual network layouts respects the shape grammars in consideration. The virtual networks are compared regarding the corresponding shape grammars. The results show the high performance of roundabouts for variable demand. The proposed Matrix shape grammar slightly reduce network performance compared to the most optimal intersection alignment in exchange for a simple shape grammar rule. Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars for land use interactions, and growth processes.2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-05-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Urban, Simulation, Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network
DBID source: FORM-1335972951
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007251014
Nebis system number: 007251014
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 91th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 22-26, 2012
Place: Washington, D.C.
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1328214213
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Washington, D.C.
Publication status: Published
Event name: 91th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 22-26, 2012
Place: Washington, D.C.
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1327672875
, Vitins, Basil J., Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos A., Aliaga, Daniel G., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Garcia-Dorado, Ignacio, Vanegas, Carlos A., Aliaga, Daniel G., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Evaluation of Shape Grammar Rules for Urban Transport Network Design
Abstract: Shape grammar rules are increasingly applied in urban simulation. Even though many network design standards propose shape grammar rules, little is known of the measurable impact of these rules on the performance of transport networks. This paper provides a general definition of shape grammar rules for transport network design. Different rules are evaluated regarding a comprehensive objective function. Networks are designed and simulated on featureless planes to avoid a bias due to history. Findings are compared with real-world case studies. The densities of network cycles are high in all generated networks, and comparable with real-world grids and medieval fabrics. The average length of network cycles decreases as an inverse function of road density, which is in line with graph theory. Intersection density is proportional to the network length. The average number or arms of an intersection depends on road density. A denser network has a disproportionately higher density of 4 arm intersections, compared to less denser networks. Hierarchical road type choice has a significant but low influence on network user costs. Additionally, terrain boundaries, as well as predefined roads (e.g. boulevards) increase average user costs. However, the average increase strongly depends on the number of bridges and on the boulevard capacity. The results show that shape grammar rules for transport network design can be evaluated to increase the understanding of their impacts, which supports future design standards.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 792
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1343848339
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., Dubernet, Thibaut, Horni, Andreas, Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Dubernet, Thibaut, Horni, Andreas, Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: MATSim Moduswahl Untersuchungen
Published in: final report to VW AG, Wolfsburg
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1357731029
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape grammars for road transport network design
Subtitle: The role of intersection types
Abstract: Urban systems continue to grow worldwide due to population growth and migration. Urban design guidelines are urgently needed for planning purposes. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements and land used types are added to each other. Shape grammars have the advantage of their ease of application in urban and interactive planning, their comprehensiveness, and their low computational requirements. Previous work showed the impact of road type shape grammar rules for road networks.
A two phase approach is proposed where phase 1 copes with road design and phase 2 with intersection type choice. The two consecutive phases are meaningful considering the results of this paper. Additionally, this paper sheds light on various intersection types and the corresponding expected delays for the road users. It is quantitatively shown that intersection delays considerably depend on the current through traffic shares. Propositions for shape grammars are made regarding intersection type choice. The proposed intersection type choice is evaluated in virtual networks, generated on featureless planes. The results show high performance for roundabouts and variable demand. The proposed shape grammar slightly reduce network performance compared to the most optimal intersection alignment in exchange for a simple shape grammar rule.
Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars for urban areas, and growth processes.
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network, Urban, Simulation
Event name: 12th International Conference on Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning
Event date: August 27-29, 2012
Place: Eindhoven, Netherlands
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
Keyword: Intersection, Delay, Shape grammars, Road, Network, Urban, Simulation
DBID source: FORM-1346872374
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape Grammars for Intersections in Urban Network Design
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: LATSIS Symposium 2012 : 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems
Event date: September 4-7, 2012
Place: Lausanne, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1347880261
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape Grammars for Intersections in Urban Network Design
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: LATSIS Symposium 2012 : 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems
Event date: September 4-7, 2012
Place: Lausanne, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1346395267, FORM-1347457443
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Road and Intersection Typology for Urban Simulations
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 797
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Accepted
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1344852707
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil J., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Grammatiken für Netzdesign
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: METRON Seminar
Event date: February 2012
Place: Brugg, Belgium
Language: German
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1346396895
, Vitins, B., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Vitins, B., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Abstract: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today and depend essentially on efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains in urban systems can be achieved by improving transport infrastructure and thus reducing overall costs of travel. Shape grammars provide a solid foundation for coherent transport network design, and concurrently reduce complexity of planning processes. Shape grammars describe how network elements are joined with each other. However, only a few are listed in standards for network design without any fundamental research basis. Therefore, shape grammars remain vague and the standards lack of clear recommendations. In this paper, shape grammars for hierarchical network design are examined for different transport networks. The investigated shape grammars include different link and intersection types. The network models are artificially created to avoid a bias in the results due to history. The networks are optimized regarding an infrastructure and user cost function. Shape grammars significantly affect transport network performance. As expected, the distribution of link types affects the network efficiency. However, intersection types and the corresponding delays in travel time have a remarkable and even larger effect on network performance. In the future, more shape grammars will be examined to shed light on the impacts of relevant grammars for transport network design and to derive clear recommendations for urban planners.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 688
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 22-26, 2012
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1312119343
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil, 2012 >>
Author(s): Bodenmann, Balz R., Vitins, Basil
Title: Implementation of a land use transport interaction model for experimental game simulations
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1338371263
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Shape Grammars for Hierarchical Transport Network Design
Abstract: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today, and therefore face the task to build efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains are due to infrastructure investments in urban systems. A shape grammar based approach is proposed to contribute to more efficient networks by reducing the enormous and complex search space in the design of a new transport network. This paper sheds light on impacts of different shape grammars in network design. The proposed approach applies a network generation algorithm based on the integration of ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). For network design applications, the proposed algorithm is able to overcome restrictions of both ACO and GA, e.g. in network size and computational time, and is concurrently computationally fast. The algorithm generates best transport network layouts given a defined objective function, including demand weighted travel times. A budget constraint provides an upper bound for infrastructure investment. Shape grammars for hierarchical network design are respected during the generation of the network layouts. Different initial network layouts are tested. It can be shown that shape grammars can affect the resulting transport networks. Future research is proposed, including additional shape grammars, variable demand and growth processes, to verify and complete the results gained.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 681
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Shape, Grammars, Rules, Transport, Transportation, Network, Design, Generation, Integrated, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
Event name: 11th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2011)
Event date: May 11-13, 2011
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Shape, Grammars, Rules, Transport, Transportation, Network, Design, Generation, Integrated, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
DBID source: FORM-1334046636
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006467126
Nebis system number: 006467126
, Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Schüssler, Nadine, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Comparison of Hierarchical Network Design Shape Grammars for Roads and Intersections
Abstract: Urban systems are growing fast in many countries today, and therefore face the task to build efficient transport networks. Significant productivity gains are due to infrastructure investments in urban systems. Economies benefit and rely on efficient transport systems, agglomeration processes and low trading costs. Energy consumption and emissions can be reduced considerably with appropriate network design. This research is motivated by the need of coherent methods for planning efficient, reliable and sustainable urban transport systems.
A grammar based approach is proposed to contribute to more efficient networks by reducing the enormous and complex search space in the design of a new transport network. Network grammar rules describe how streets, intersections and eventually transit lines of certain types or hierarchical levels may be added to and joined with each other; for example, if a four-lane road can be crossed by a local access road, or if a round-about can have five or more arms. Grammar rules are implicit and explicit in the relevant guidelines and norms, which regulate the design process today. There currently exist several advisory standards for transport network design in different countries, but most of them are without a fundamental research basis, remaining vague in their recommendations.
Recent developments in urban modeling and planning increasingly provide procedural methods because of their well-defined and straightforward application possibilities, allowing implementations in interactive planning tools and computer models, which go beyond current planning approaches. Additionally, grammar rules enable the practitioner to design a network within a reasonable amount of time and effort. This paper sheds light on impacts of set of different grammar rules. The impacts are estimated from a new algorithm for network generation, an area currently under-researched.
The proposed approach applies a network generation algorithm based on the integration of ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). For network design applications, the proposed algorithm is able to overcome restrictions of both ACO and GA, e.g. in network size, and is concurrently computationally fast. The algorithm generates best transport network layouts give a defined objective function. Different objective functions and grammar rules can be tested for their impact on the generation process of transport network layouts. The current objective function includes demand weighted travel times and travel distances as a measure of costs. An accessibility measure is implemented as an alternative for comparison reasons. A budget constraint provides an upper bound for infrastructure investment. Grammar rules are respected during the generation of network layouts. Currently examined grammar rules encompass rules on adjacent links, which determine permitted adjacent link types and the intersection types, and the number of arms allowed for each intersection type. The amount of the each land use types is predefined but alignment of the parcels in space is kept variable for optimization purposes. The resulting network layouts are evaluated with the objective functions and compared. Comparison of the outcomes provides new important evidence on the grammar rules and their impact on network design. The impacts of different grammar rules are summarized and suggestions are provided for potential guidelines.
This paper is the first comprehensive effort to account for the impacts of grammar rules, which is missing in the literature and the professional norms and guidelines. The chosen approach is independent of case studies and applicable to any urban system. Future research is proposed, accounting for additional grammar rules, for public transportation and growth processes, but also transfers to different field of network design, such as pipeline networks and telecommunication.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: European Transport Conference 2011 (ETC 2011)
Event date: October 10-12, 2011
Place: Glasgow, UK
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1324836752
, Vitins, Basil J., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: An Integrated and Adaptive Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithm for Transport Network Design
Abstract: Urban systems emerge and grow considerably in many countries today and in near future, and therefore also the necessity for efficient transport networks. This research is motivated by the need of methodologies for planning efficient, reliable and sustainable urban transport systems. Already existing approaches are summarized. The proposed optimization algorithm is capable of designing an entire urban road network. The network's efficiency is measured with a computationally costly objective function (deterministic user equilibrium), including generalized costs of travel and an infrastructure budget constraint. The efficiency is maximized during the network design process. The optimization algorithm is initialized with a large set of candidate links describing a large search space. The algorithm complements strategies of an ant colony optimization (ACO) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to design the transport network. The learning ability is retained, which is prominent in an ACO. A recombination method, derived from the GA approach, focuses on transport network characteristics. The algorithm is detailed, and tested in several case studies, including real world examples, to design and evaluate road networks. The algorithm is extended for network shape grammars because they have increasingly gained in importance in urban planning and simulations. Shape grammars describe in the form of rules how network elements of different types are added to each other. The results show that shape grammars can be incorporated in the algorithm and that they considerably influence the resulting networks, compared to networks excluding shape grammars. Potential applications in other fields of network construction are likely.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Transportation and Logistics, Network Design, Artificial Intelligence
Event name: International Conference on Operations Research, Sustainable OR 2011
Event date: August 30 - September 2, 2011
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Transportation and Logistics, Network Design, Artificial Intelligence
DBID source: FORM-1324838133
, Vitins, Basil J., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Transport Network Generation and Shape Grammars Development for Urban Systems
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Equilibrium Sorting in Urban Systems Workshop
Event date: March 2011
Place: Zurich, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1324838488
, Vitins, B.J., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, K.W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vitins, B.J., Schüssler, N., Axhausen, K.W.
Title: Shape Grammars for Passenger Transport Network Generation including Land Use Aspects
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 11th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2011)
Event date: May 11-14, 2011
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1305895279
, Horni, A., Vitins, B., Axhausen, K.W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Horni, A., Vitins, B., Axhausen, K.W.
Title: The Zurich Scenario
Subtitle: A Technical Overview
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 687
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1312119458
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Title: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Subtitle: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Abstract: 2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 645
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Neuenburg
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1286059190
, Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Title: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Subtitle: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 647
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Neuenburg
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1286058905
, Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W., 2009 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J., Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Optimization of Large Transport Networks Using the Ant Colony Heuristic
Abstract: Long-term transportation planning for larger regions must assess synergies and interference among sets of projects. The objective is the maximization of the overall benefit within specific budget restrictions by finding the most favorable bundle of projects, that is, solving the network design problem. For large numbers of projects, complete enumeration of all combinations is not feasible for detailed networks. The ant colony heuristic is suitable for this kind of problem. According to our knowledge, this article presents the above-mentioned heuristic's first application to a realistically sized network. A detailed multimodal network assignment of a substantial Swiss city provides the basis for calculations. First, each infrastructure project is assessed using a cost–benefit analysis. The ant colony heuristic is then successfully executed and the bundles are evaluated. The article provides new insights into applications of the heuristic in large networks and focuses on problematic calibration details as well as the choice of objective function. Suggestions are made for general applications and further research.
Published in: Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering
Volume: 24
Issue: 1
Pages: 1 - 14
ISSN: 1093-9687
Publication date / Date received: 2009-01-01
Publication status: Boston, MA
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-33336
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2008.00569.x
Nebis system number: 005238657
, Vitins, Basil J., 2006 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil J.
Title: Optimierung der Verkehrsinfrastruktur der Region Bern mit der Ant Colony Heuristic
Abstract: Bei der Erstellung eines Verkehrskonzeptes müssen in der Verkehrsplanung nicht nur einzel- ne Massnahmen bewertet werden, sondern auch ihre Kombinationen unter Berücksichtigung von Synergien und Gegenläufigkeiten. Dabei gilt es, das optimale Massnahmenbündel zu fin- den. Diese Fragestellung wird in dieser Arbeit durch das Network Design Problem dargestellt und mit der Ant Colony Heuristic gelöst. Zunächst werden einzelne Verkehrsprojekte der Re- gion Bern in ein Gesamtverkehrsmodell integriert und bewertet. In einem zweiten Teil wird die Ant Colony Heuristic angewendet und gemäss einer Zielfunktion ein optimales Bündel er- stellt. Die Ant Colony Heuristic wurde erfolgreich implementiert und kalibriert. Die Resultate zeigen, dass die angewendete Zielfunktion und die Verkehrsmittelwahl Funktion für die opti- mierte Massnahmenkombination entscheidend sind. Die Massnahmenkombination wie auch die Einzelnutzen geben weit reichende Einblicke in die veränderten Streckenbelastungen und Verkehrsverteilung der Region Bern.2
Publication date / Date received: 2006-12-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Network design, Netzwerk, Optimierung, Ant colony, Ant system, Heuristic, Algorithmus, Bündel, Kombination, Massnahmen, Bewertung, Bern, Verkehrsplanung
Language: German
Keyword: Network design, Netzwerk, Optimierung, Ant colony, Ant system, Heuristic, Algorithmus, Bündel, Kombination, Massnahmen, Bewertung, Bern, Verkehrsplanung
DBID source: FORM-1321986600

 

 

 

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