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, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alexander, 2015 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alexander
Title: A Bayesian network approach for population synthesis
Abstract: Agent-based micro-simulation models require a complete list of agents with detailed demographic/socioeconomic information for the purpose of behavior modeling and simulation. This paper introduces a new alternative for population synthesis based on Bayesian networks. A Bayesian network is a graphical representation of a joint probability distribution, encoding probabilistic relationships among a set of variables in an efficient way. Similar to the previously developed simulation-based approach, in this paper, we consider the population synthesis problem to be the inference of a joint probability distribution. In this sense, the Bayesian network model becomes a perfect tool that allows us to compactly represent/reproduce the structure of the population system and preserve privacy and confidentiality in the meanwhile. We demonstrate and assess the performance of this approach in generating synthetic population for Singapore, by using the Household Interview Travel Survey (HITS) data as the known test population. Our results show that the introduced Bayesian network approach is powerful in characterizing the underlying joint distribution, and meanwhile the overfitting of data can be avoided as much as possible.2
Published in: Transportation research. Part C
Volume: 61
Pages: 49 - 62
ISSN: 0968-090X
Publication date / Date received: 2015-12-01
Publication status: Oxford
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Population synthesis, Agent-based model, Bayesian networks, Data-driven
Language: English
Keyword: Population synthesis, Agent-based model, Bayesian networks, Data-driven
DBID source: FORM-1434811890
DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2015.10.010
Nebis system number: 000889058
, Van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Chen, Haohui, Erath, Alexander, Cebrian, Manuel, 2015 >>
Author(s): Van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Chen, Haohui, Erath, Alexander, Cebrian, Manuel
Title: Investigating the potential of social network data for transport demand models
Abstract: Location-based social network data offers the promise of collecting the data from a large base of users over a longer span of time at negligible costs. While several studies have applied social network data to activity and mobility analysis, a comparison with travel diaries and general statistics is lacking. In this paper we analyze geo-referenced Twitter activities from a large number of users in Singapore and its neighbouring countries. By combining this data, population statistics and travel diaries, and applying clustering techniques, we address questions regarding the detection of activity locations, the spatial separation between these locations and the transitions between these locations. Despite a large number of Twitter users present in the data set which we collected over a period of 8 months, only an amount comparable to a travel survey turned out to be useful for further analysis due to the scattered nature of the data. Kernel density estimation performs best to detect activity locations; more activity locations are detected per user than reported in the travel survey. Descriptive analysis shows that determining home locations is more difficult than detecting work locations for most planning zones. The spatial separation between detected activity locations from Twitter data and as reported in a travel survey and captured by public transport smart card data are at large similarly distributed, but also show relevant differences for very short and very long distances. This equally holds for the transitions between zones. Whether the differences between Twitter data and other data sources stem from differences in the population sub-sample, the clustering methodology or whether social networks are being used significantly more at certain locations is to be determined by further research. Despite these shortcomings, location-based social network data offers a promising data source for insights in activity locations and mobility patterns, especially for regions where travel survey data is not be readily available.2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Washington, D.C., USA
Publication status: Accepted
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB 2015)
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, D.C., USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1426258893
, Van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Chen, Haohui, Erath, Alexander, Cebrian, Manuel, 2015 >>
Author(s): Van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Chen, Haohui, Erath, Alexander, Cebrian, Manuel
Title: Investigating the potential of social network data for transport demand models
Abstract: Shortcomings of travel diaries include the common underreporting of short trips and, more importantly, that it is not feasible to sample from all potential user groups and over a longer time span in the study region due to time and budget limitations.2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Washington, D.C., USA
Publication status: Published
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB 2015)
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, D.C., USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1426257381
, Erath, Alexander, 2015 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Modelling for Walkability: understanding pedestrians' preferences in Singapore
Abstract: Walking is the most prevalent mode of transport in urban environment with regards to the number of trips. As walking is also an inherently sustainable mode of transport, many cities started initiatives to improve walkability. To do this effectively, a profound understanding about the pedestrian behaviour and preference is required. Compared to other modes of transport, pedestrians are more exposed and hence sensitive to the quality built environment (Ewing and Handy 2009). Therefore it is important to account for such factors when studying pedestrian behaviour.2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Event name: 14th International Conference on Travel Behavior Research (IATBR)
Event date: July 19-23, 2015
Place: Windsor, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1446796366
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Vehicle ownership and usage in Switzerland: the role of micro and macro-accessibility
Abstract: This study investigates the role of built environment and accessibility on vehicle ownership and usage in Switzerland. To characterize the urban structure we make a distinction between micro- accessibility and macro-accessibility. Micro-accessibility is derived from an extensive online points of interest database and the walking time to these destinations. From the calculated micro- accessibility, a diversity and destination index is constructed. After controlling for household income, license ownership and household composition, built environment and accessibility significantly influences vehicle ownership and usage. Diversity of nearby destinations is more than important the number of destinations for both vehicle ownership and usage. Public transport accessibility plays a more important role in moderating vehicle ownership than in moderating vehicle usage for households owning a car.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 1093
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1438931378
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Axhausen, Kay W., Fourie, Pieter J., Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., 2015 >>
Author(s): Axhausen, Kay W., Fourie, Pieter J., Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A.
Title: From Big Data to Smart Data: Developing a Large-scale public transport simulation that runs on Smart Card Data
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: CREATE Symposium on Future Mobility
Event date: July 8-9, 2015
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1437803666
, Zen, Wei, Fu, Chi-Wing, Müller Arisona, Stefan, Erath, Alexander, Qu, Huamin, 2014 >>
Author(s): Zen, Wei, Fu, Chi-Wing, Müller Arisona, Stefan, Erath, Alexander, Qu, Huamin
Title: Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System
Abstract: Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.2
Published in: IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics
Volume: 20
Issue: 12
Pages: 1833 - 1842
ISSN: 1077-2626, 1941-0506, 2160-9306
Publication date / Date received: 2014-12-01
Publication status: New York, NY
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Mobility, Public transportation, Visual analytics
Language: English
Keyword: Mobility, Public transportation, Visual analytics
DBID source: FORM-1408778295, SCOPUS-84910060068, WOS-000344991700028
DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2014.2346893
Nebis system number: 001428638
, Sun, Lijun, Tirachini, Alejandro, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander, Lee, Der-Horng, 2014 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Tirachini, Alejandro, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander, Lee, Der-Horng
Title: Models of bus boarding and alighting dynamics
Abstract: Understanding the dynamics of boarding/alighting activities and its impact on bus dwell times is crucial to improving bus service levels. However, research is limited as conventional data collection methods are both time and labour intensive. In this paper, we present the first use of smart card data to study passenger boarding/alighting behaviour and its impact on bus dwell time. Given the nature of these data, we focus on passenger activity time and do not account for the time necessary to open and close doors. We study single decker, double decker and articulated buses and identify the specific effects of floor/entrance type, number of activities and occupancy on both boarding and alighting dynamics. A linear relationship between average boarding and alighting times and their respective standard deviations is also found, whereas the variability of boarding and alighting time decreases with the number of passengers boarding and alighting. After observing the cumulative boarding/alighting processes under different occupancy conditions, we propose a new model to estimate passenger activity time, by introducing critical occupancy – a parameter incorporating the friction between boarding/alighting and on-board passengers. We conduct regression analyses with the proposed and another popular model for simultaneous boarding/alighting processes, finding that the critical occupancy plays a significant role in determining the regime of boarding and alighting processes and the overall activity time. Our results provide potential implications for practice and policy, such as identifying optimal vehicle for a particular route and modelling transit service reliability2
Published in: Transportation research. Part A, Policy and practice
Volume: 69
Pages: 447 - 460
ISSN: 0965-8564, 1879-2375
Publication date / Date received: 2014-11-01
Publication status: Amsterdam
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Boarding/alighting dynamics, Bus dwell time, Crowding, Smart card data, Bus configuration, Public transit
Language: English
Keyword: Boarding/alighting dynamics, Bus dwell time, Crowding, Smart card data, Bus configuration, Public transit
DBID source: FORM-1374507573, SCOPUS-84908365299
DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2014.09.007
Nebis system number: 000006552
, Sun, Lijun, Jin, Jian Gang, Lee, Der-Horng, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander, 2014 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Jin, Jian Gang, Lee, Der-Horng, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander
Title: Demand-driven timetable design for metro services
Abstract: Timetable design is crucial to the metro service reliability. A straightforward and commonly adopted strategy in daily operation is a peak/off-peak-based schedule. However, such a strategy may fail to meet dynamic temporal passenger demand, resulting in long passenger waiting time at platforms and over-crowding in trains. Thanks to the emergence of smart card-based automated fare collection systems, we can now better quantify spatial-temporal demand on a microscopic level. In this paper, we formulate three optimization models to design demand-sensitive timetables by demonstrating train operation using equivalent time (interval). The first model aims at making the timetable more dynamic; the second model is an extension allowing for capacity constraints. The third model aims at designing a capacitated demand-sensitive peak/off-peak timetable. We assessed the performance of these three models and conducted sensitivity analyses on different parameters on a metro line in Singapore, finding that dynamical timetable built with capacity constraints is most advantageous. Finally, we conclude our study and discuss the implications of the three models: the capacitated model provides a timetable which shows best performance under fixed capacity constraints, while the uncapacitated model may offer optimal temporal train configuration. Although we imposed capacity constraints when designing the optimal peak/off-peak timetable, its performance is not as good as models with dynamical headways. However, it shows advantages such as being easier to operate and more understandable to the passengers.2
Published in: Transportation research. Part C, Emerging technologies
Volume: 46
Pages: 284 - 299
ISSN: 0968-090X
Publication date / Date received: 2014-09-01
Publication status: Oxford
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Metro system, Timetable, Smart card, Demand-driven
Language: English
Keyword: Metro system, Timetable, Smart card, Demand-driven
DBID source: FORM-1376651096, WOS-000343387300019
DOI: 10.1016/j.trc.2014.06.003
Nebis system number: 000889058
, Erath, Alexander, Fourie, Pieter J., Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Fourie, Pieter J., Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem
Title: Using smart card data as an Input for large scale agent-based transport simulation
Subtitle: The case of Singapore
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 1st International workshop on utilizing transit smart card data for service planning
Event date: July 2-3, 2014
Place: Gifu, Japan
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1407503219
, Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Evaluating novel and traditional survey methods for the construction of a behavioral founded walkability index
Abstract: Transportation planners have traditionally focused on different aspects of motorized transport. More recently, the importance of walking is being realized. Not only does every public transport trip start and end with a walking journey, walking as a main mode can reduce the number of motorized trips and reduce the accompanying negative externalities, such as road congestion, emissions and public transport overcrowding. Additionally, it has social and recreational value, and promotes physical and mental health (Southworth, 2005). For walking to be considered as a main mode, with the attractiveness of walking being dubbed walkability, several prerequisites are necessary. For instance, Speck (2012) puts forward that for a city to be walkable several prerequisites should be met. A walk should be useful (e.g. mixed use), safe, comfortable and interesting. In addition to this qualitative approach of describing walkability, approaches to quantify walkability have emerged. Walk Score, and other indices for walkability proposed so far are mostly ad-hoc, somewhat informative and refer generally to the closest amenities/public transport stops and the existing network structure. The weights of the attributes of the indices are generally arbitrary and do not reflect the independently measured preferences of the users and residents. Furthermore, they usually employ beeline distance measures instead of pedestrian network distances and do not include design attributes such as the layout of sidewalks, noise and speed level of traffic or street width, which are very relevant for actual planning decisions. As outlined, walkability consists of more than the mere presence of a sidewalk; it consists of both the quality and topology of the walking environment and how pedestrians' evaluate those characteristics. In this study we aim to formulate a behavioral founded walkability index, which incorporates pedestrian's preferences and design attributes. In order to calculate a walkability index, both the walking environment will be mapped and pedestrians preferences will be estimated with a discrete choice models. In the paper we will present our experiences and outcomes of measuring users' preferences of the walking environment in two districts in Singapore, in total measuring approximately 4 by 4 kilometers. The study will be carried out between January and July 2014 and will use three approaches: detailed mapping of the pedestrian network and description of destinations, analysis of reported/tracked walks indoors/outdoors (revealed preference) and of stated choice experiments. With the revealed preference approach, we aim to measure users' preferences by means of their route choice and destination choice. In the technology enabled approach 250 individuals, quota sampled based on age, gender and main mode used will be asked to install a smartphone application, making it possible to track individuals by means of GPS and WiFi spots. The survey area consists of high rises, indoor and underground pedestrian throughways. First tests however have shown this built environment can pose challenges for pedestrian position tracking by a combined GPS / WiFi approach, especially as we are not only interested the road being traversed, but also which side of the road and which crossings are used. Therefore, a second, traditional approach will be pursued additionally: random pedestrians will be followed by research assistants, and their origin, destination as well as traces and intermediate stops, will be noted, in addition to person characteristics, such as age category and gender. Based on the observed routes, choice sets will be generated and route choice models will be estimated. In the stated preference survey, the same 250 individuals will receive two different SP experiments, focusing on route choice (link properties, intersection characteristics) and destination choice by type of destination. This paper will focus on several aspects of the walkability study of relevance, namely: - The experiences with using combined GPS / WiFi in a dense urban environment; - Differences in data quality and resulting route choice models using GPS / WiFi trackers and 'traditional' following of individuals; - The comparison of behavioral parameters concerning walkability based on revealed preference respectively stated preference data.2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Accepted
Event name: 10th International Conference on Transport Survey Methods (ISCTSC14)
Event date: November 16-21, 2014
Place: Leura, Australia
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416836079
, Erath, Alexander, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Visualising and analysing agent-based model data for decision support
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: London, UK
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: 9th annual Modelling World conference and exhibition
Event date: June 5, 2014
Place: London, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416843713
, Erath, Alexander, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Urban transport systems
Subtitle: A brief for urban designers
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Future Cities Laboratory (FCL 2014)
Event date: September 24-26, 2014
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416840424
, Erath, Alexander, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Future Urban Transport Systems
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: stars Singapore Symposium: Growing Asia
Event date: February 16-19, 2014
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416839294
, Erath, Alex, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van
Title: Embracing Walkability
Subtitle: How planning for pedestrians will lead to an alternative urban model
Abstract: Walking is not only a viable mode of transport to reach key amenities of daily life, it has positive effects on our health, increases public security, and is an activity of sheer pleasure in its own right. However, walking is only possible if the urban fabric and transport infrastructure is in place to support it. Given these advantages, one might wonder why most cities have gradually neglected the needs of pedestrians while constantly improving conditions for individual motorised traffic. This article outlines why transport planning models neglected to account for pedestrian movement, and how ignoring this factor in decision-making helped forming a vicious circle of building more roads to serve an ever increasing demand for cars and motorcycles. It also presents the initial results of a research roadmap with the goal to develop software tools for the evaluation of walkability to be applied for analysis and planning.2
Published in: FCL Magazine
Issue: 2
Pages: 54 - 59
ISSN: 2339-5427
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416851242
Nebis system number: 010542992
, Erath, Alex, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex
Title: Paradigms and models for sustainable urban mobility
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Innovació urbana, mobilitat i metabolisme metropolità
Event date: 16 October 2014
Place: Barcelona, Spain
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416846211
, Erath, Alex, 2014 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex
Title: Learning from Singapore: towards sustainable mobility?
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Urban Masterplan Workshop, rea Metropolitana Barcelona
Event date: 15 October 2014
Place: Barcelona, Spain
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1416846505
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, 2014 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander
Title: Pedestrian and transit accessibility on a micro-level
Subtitle: Results & challenges
Abstract: In this paper we connect two notions of accessibility which are more often than not considered separately: non-motorized, pedestrian, accessibility and transit accessibility. We move away from the notion of zonal accessibility. Two pedestrian networks are compared to a base-line scenario considering Euclidean distances for a large metropolitan area in which each individual building is considered to be an activity opportunity. It is shown that pedestrian accessibility to jobs differs when pedestrians distances are approximated with different networks. Stop-to-stop public transport travel times are extracted from an agent-based simulation of public transport smart card data. The effect of less than optimal connections to transit to the pedestrian network, a local measurement, can be seen when calculating the accessibility to all destinations in the city. We suggest to move away from Euclidean based distance analyses. Limitations can be found in the data available; the connection of buildings to the network becomes important as does the inclusion of pedestrian crossings. For an inclusive accessibility measure it will be necessary to calculate generalized costs for pedestrians and generate different pedestrian networks reflecting the limitations of different user groups.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 961
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture, Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Event name: World Symposium on Transport and Land Use Research (WSTLUR)
Event date: June 24-27, 2014
Place: Delft, The Netherlands
Language: English
DBID source: CSV-
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Casati, Daniele, Müller, Kirill, Fourie, Pieter J., Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Casati, Daniele, Müller, Kirill, Fourie, Pieter J., Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Synthetic population generation by combining a hierarchical, simulation-based approach with reweighting by generalized raking
Abstract: We extend a recent approach of generating populations of synthetic individuals through simula- tion, to produce households of grouped individuals. The contingency tables of the generated populations match external controls both on individual and household level, while exhibiting far greater variety in composition than what existing approaches can offer. Our method involves a two-staged approach: 1. A procedure based upon Gibbs sampling which has only recently been applied to popula- tion generation in transportation modeling, and is generically called Markov Chain Monte Carlo. For this work, an extension was developed, Hierarchical MCMC, which is able to generate a hierarchical structure. 2. A post-processing step using Generalized Raking, which reweights the output from Hier- archical MCMC in order to perfectly satisfy known marginal control totals on individual and household level. The application input data a demographic sample and some known marginals from the country of Singapore added further complexities to the problem, which have not yet been explored in the current literature. Despite data challenges, applying the methods above consecutively produces realistic synthetic populations: results confirm the goodness-of-fit of the population and its generated hierarchical structure.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Raum- und Verkehrsplanung
Volume: 1016
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB 2015)
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, D.C., USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1406997244
, van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): van Eggermond, Michael A.B., Erath, Alexander
Title: Accessibility on a micro-level: a closer look at pedestrian routing and network generation
Book title: 10th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 10th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: September, 9-12, 2013
Place: Taipeh, Taiwan
Language: English
DBID source: CSV-
, Tirachini, Alejandro, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Tirachini, Alejandro, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alexander
Title: Valuation of sitting and standing in public transport using revealed preferences
Abstract: 2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 919
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Unpublished
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1376652322
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander
Title: New dynamic events-based public transport router for agent-based simulations
Abstract: Public transport route choice is an open problem studied for many years and it is well regarded that many factors influence the choice of stages making up a public transport trip. In addition to factors such travel time, fare, service frequency, number of transfers and transfer waiting time, the focus of research shifted more and more to dynamic factors such as crowdedness and travel time variability. This paper describes a method to simulate public transport route choice for a whole population in a city or even a country taking into account all factors mentioned above using the MATSim framework, a multi-agent and activity-based transport simulator. A new public transport router is proposed using a time dependent shortest path algorithm in a graph with links representing in-vehicle travel, waiting and walking (from activity locations to public transport facilities and between public transport facilities). The cost of the path can be specified to depend on the fares, travel times, occupancy levels, waiting times and number of transfers. In addition, the agent-based nature of the simulation model allows to define agent-specific parameters for each attribute to account for preference heterogeneity within the agent population. Simulated dynamic effects such as bus bunching and overcrowded services lead to additional waiting and travel times, compared with the public transport schedule. Within the MATSim evolutionary algorithm, this information is saved after each simulation of the same day, and used to re-route agents. The router is implemented and tested for Singapore, whose modeled public transport system features bus and subway. As in most major cities, the model shows that the stability and schedule reliability of bus services can at times only hardly be maintained, while crowdedness at the peak hours is an issue for both bus and mass rapid transit and light rapid transit. We illustrate how the new approach allows agents to adapt to these dynamic complexities. The new approach, along with the original scheduled-based router of MATSim are compared for computation time, as well as for agent learning rate, i.e. the time needed to reach a particular solution state. With a better capacity to model observed public transport route choice, more than 10% of improvement in computation time per simulation iteration, and needing much smaller number of iterations to reach user equilibrium, the proposed alternative results a Pareto-dominant improvement.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 921
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Accepted
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1376907015
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander
Title: Estimating Dynamic Workplace Capacities using Public Transport Smart Card Data and a Household Travel Survey
Abstract: The number, temporal and spatial distribution of work locations is crucial information for any transport demand model. To generate the initial transport demand of MATSim, an activity-based multi-agent simulation framework, it is necessary to determine dynamic work locations capacities with high spatial resolution, either on a parcel or even a building level. Commonly applied methods to derive work locations are based on census of enterprises information, unemployment insurance database or combined information of buildings gross floor area and individual work space requirements. As an alternative, we present a methodology which combines public transport smart card transaction data, travel diary survey and building information data sources. Work activities are detected from smart card transactions based on observed activity duration and start time and hence related to public transport stops. To link the observed work activities to individual buildings, a linear programming optimization technique is applied that minimizes the walking time between public transport stops and potential work locations. The method classifies work activities in representative work schedules obtained by clustering methods. Information on maximum allowed building gross floor area derived from land use regulation is combined with estimates on individual work space requirements to ensure that buildings are only assigned with work activities according to their maximal capacity. To account for private transport based work activities, mode shares as observed in a travel diary are taken into account. To demonstrate the applicability, the proposed approach is implemented for the case of Singapore and the results of this case study critically reviewed.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369668218
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander
Title: Estimating Dynamic Workplace Capacities by Means of Public Transport Smart Card Data and Household Travel Survey in Singapore
Abstract: The number, temporal and spatial distribution of work locations is crucial information for any transport demand model. To generate the initial transport demand of MATSim, an activity-based multi-agent simulation framework, it is necessary to determine dynamic work locations capacities with high spatial resolution, either on a parcel or even a building level. Commonly applied methods to derive work locations are based on census of enterprises information, unemployment insurance database or combined information of buildings gross floor area and individual work space requirements. As an alternative, we present a methodology which combines public transport smart card transaction data, travel diary survey and building information data sources. Work activities are detected from smart card transactions based on observed activity duration and start time and hence related to public transport stops. To link the observed work activities to individual buildings, a linear programming optimization technique is applied that minimizes the walking time between public transport stops and potential work locations. The method classifies work activities in representative work schedules obtained by clustering methods. Information on maximum allowed building gross floor area derived from land use regulation is combined with estimates on individual work space requirements to ensure that buildings are only assigned with work activities according to their maximal capacity. To account for private transport based work activities, mode shares as observed in a travel diary are taken into account. To demonstrate the applicability, the proposed approach is implemented for the case of Singapore and the results of this case study critically reviewed.
Published in: Transportation research record : journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume: 2344
Pages: 20 - 30
ISSN: 0361-1981
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Umweltproblematik allgemein|Environmental Problems, General
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369669862
DOI: 10.3141/2344-03
Nebis system number: 000024408
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander
Title: Estimating Dynamic Workplace Capacities Using Public Transport Smart Card Data, Travel Diary Survey, and Land Use Information
Abstract: The number and spatial distribution of work locations is a crucial piece of information for any transport demand model. To generate the initial transport demand of MATSim, an activity-based multi-agent simulation framework, it is necessary to determine the number of work locations with high spatial resolution, either on a parcel or even a building level. Commonly applied methods to derive work locations are based on census of entreprises information, unemployment insurance database or combine information of buildings gross floor area and individual work space requirements. As an alternative, we present a methodology which combines public transport smart card transaction data, travel diary survey and building information data sources.Work activities are detected from public transport smart card transactions based on observed activity duration and start time and hence related to public transport stops. To link the observed work activities to individual buildings, a linear programming optimisation technique is applied that minimises the walking time between public transport stops and potential work locations. Information on maximum allowed building gross floor area derived from land use regulation is combined with estimates on individual work space requirements to set boundary conditions and ensure that buildings are only assigned with work activities according to its maximal capacity. To account for private transport based work activities, mode shares as observed in a travel diary are taken into account. Due to the limited number of observations of such surveys, this inflation process is performed on the level of specifically generated mode share zones. To demonstrate the applicability, the proposed approach is implemented for the case of Singapore and the results of this case study critically reviewed.
Pages: 13-3683
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347372474
, Fröhlich, Phillip, Weis, Claude, Erath, Alexander, Vrtic, Milenko, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Fröhlich, Phillip, Weis, Claude, Erath, Alexander, Vrtic, Milenko, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: SP-Befragung 2010 zum Verkehrsverhalten im Personenverkehr
Abstract: Stated Preference (SP) Befragungen werden in der Schweiz seit rund 10 Jahren zur Schätzung diskreter Entscheidungsmodelle zur Verkehrsmittel- und Routenwahl eingesetzt. Dabei waren oft spezielle Untersuchungszwecke massgebend, wie z.B. die Einführung der ICN-Züge oder die Prüfung des Mobility Pricings, die alle Fahrten mit langen Fahrtweiten untersuchten. SP- Befragungen sind insbesondere dann erfolgversprechend, wenn sie auf real berichteten Wegen basieren (sogenannte Revealed Preference (RP) Daten). In der Schweiz wird das Verkehrsverhalten von der SBB mit der kontinuierlichen Erhebung Personenverkehr (KEP), laufend für Wege > 3 km erfasst. Mangels anderer Datenquellen wurden alle bisherigen SP- Erhebungen auf Grundlage der KEP-Daten aufgebaut, was, neben den speziellen Untersuchungszwecken, die bisherige Vernachlässigung der kürzeren Wege in den SP- Erhebungen erklärt. SP-Daten haben den Vorteil, unter "Laborbedingungen", als Experiment, erhoben zu werden. Dabei werden den Befragten hypothetische Situationen vorgelegt. Damit ist eine grÖssere Variation in den Ausprägungen der Angebotsvariablen mÖglich. Im Versuchsplan kÖnnen sowohl der Wertebereich der Attribute als auch die interessanten Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Attributen festgelegt werden. RP-Daten hingegen werden durch Beobachtung oder Befragung von Entscheidungen unter realen Bedingungen (aktuelle Marktbedingungen) gewonnen. Somit ist die Variation der Angebotsdaten oft zu gering und eine starke Korrelation zwischen einzelnen Variablen meist unvermeidlich. Ein Vorteil der RP-Daten ist die Erhebung realer Entscheidungen mit den umweltseitigen und technologischen Beschränkungen und individuellen Sachzwängen (z.B. Ein-kommen) der Befragten. Die Bundesämter für Raumentwicklung und Statistik führen im 5-Jahres-Rhythmus den Mik- rozensus Verkehr durch, der sowohl bezüglich der Wegcharakteristiken als auch der Perso- nenstichprobe repräsentativ für die Schweiz ist. Erstmals ergibt sich nun die MÖglichkeit, mit der Unterstützung einer Vielzahl von Kantonen die Mikrozensus-Erhebung mit einer SP- Befragung zu kombinieren. Diese soll Daten für das Verkehrsmittelwahl- und Routenwahlverhalten erheben und für die Weiterentwicklung des Nationalen Personenverkehrsmodells (NPVM) sowie für die Erstellung und Erweiterung kantonaler Verkehrsmodelle genutzt werden. Die Zielsetzung des Projekts ist, eine SP-Erhebung zu konzipieren und durchzuführen, welche bezüglich der Wegecharakteristiken (Modi, Zweck und Länge) und der räumlichen und soziodemographischen Merkmale der Befragten, die Stichprobe des Mikrozensus repräsentativ widerspiegelt. Beim Erhebungsdesign ist auf die Anforderungen bezüglich: - Preiselastizität und nicht-lineare Einflüsse - Parkplatzsituation - Einkommen - Auslastung im ÖV und MIV entsprechend Rücksicht zu nehmen. Das Erhebungskonzept und die erstellten SP-Experimente sowie die daraus erhobenen Daten sollten zusammen mit den Mikrozensusdaten die Anforderungen an zukünftige Modellstrukturen erfüllen und die entsprechende Schätzung von Modellparametern ermÖglichen. Mit diesen Daten ist die Schätzung der Routenwahlmodelle (MIV und ÖV) und Verkehrsmittelwahlmodelle gesichert.
Published in: Travel Survey Metadata Series
Volume: 48
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehrsverhalten, Stated Preference
Language: German
Keyword: Verkehrsverhalten, Stated Preference
DBID source: FORM-1386683234
, Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, Fourie, Pieter J., 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, Fourie, Pieter J.
Title: Using public transport smart card data for large-scale, agent-based transport demand simulation using MATSim
Subtitle: The case of Singapore
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: LTA-UITP Singapore International Transport Congress and Exhibition (SITCE) 2013
Event date: October 7-10, 2013
Place: Singapore, Republic of Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383041965
, Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem
Title: Applications of large-scale, agent-based transport demand simulation for public transport analysis using MATSim
Subtitle: The case of Singapore
Abstract: This paper describes the modelling of public transport when developing the agent-based multimodal transport demand model MATSim for the case Singapore. First, the network modelling efforts are presented. The base layer of public transport system representation is a set of stop facilities and public transport lines. Whereas the MRT and LRT network is independently operated and hence modelled to run on a separate network, the bus lines are modelled to allow interaction with traffic. The provision of dedicated bus lanes is considered in the network model and hence accounted for in the simulation. To enhance realism of the model, the simulation embraces vehicle specific capacity constraints and dwell times to be dependent the intensity of boarding and alighting activities. Two applications of the model are showcased. First, the expected impact of the opening of an MRT line extension as modelled with MATSim Singapore is compared to actual observations as obtained from smart card transaction before and after the opening of the extension. Second, the performance of the system assuming the ubiquitous provision of dedicated bus lanes is evaluated.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: LTA-UITP Singapore International Transport Congress and Exhibition (SITCE 2013)
Event date: October 7-10, 2013
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1376907900
, Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem
Title: Decision support tools in transport planning
Subtitle: From research to practice
Abstract: With the progress in transport demand modelling from aggregated, static and zone-based assignment models to fully dynamic agent- and activity-based transport simulations, the scope of data that needs to be collected, managed and maintained has changed dramatically. Furthermore, the type of analyses as well as potential analysts have changed. Whereas traditionally transport modelers would analyze data and create static maps, pre-defined graphs and tables we envision other end-users: transport authorities, architects, policy-makers and the service industry. These analysts can utilize a decision-support tool, based on the output of an agent-based model as well as analyze their own datasets and fully analyze spatial and temporal agent behavior without requiring continuous support from a transport modeler. In this paper, we present a framework of a decision support system designed to enable analysis of the wealth of information provided by agent-based transport demand models, travel diary surveys and automatically collected data on transport infrastructure usage. We present a practical application of the framework using it for analyzing the MATSim model of Singapore along with the Household Interview Travel Survey and public transport smart card transaction data. At the time of writing, the status of presented applications is only preliminary as not all necessary dataset and interfaces are yet fully developed, but the presented case-studies give already a very good idea about the potential scope and functioning of the decision support system. For future work, we envisage stakeholder workshops to better understand their diverse requirements and jointly refine what type of questions the decision support system should support to answer and adapt it accordingly.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1367319248, FORM-1369661180
, Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem
Title: Decision Support Tool to unlock the potential of large-scale agent-based transport demand simulation for planning practice
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 10th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS 2013)
Event date: September 9-12, 2013
Place: Taipei, Taiwan
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383041324
, Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Fourie, Pieter J., Chakirov, Artem
Title: Decision Support Tool to unlock the potential of large-scale agent-based transport demand simulation for planning practice
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 10th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS 2013)
Event date: September 9-12, 2013
Place: Taipei, Taiwan
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1395213079, FORM-1383041324
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Long term fuel price elasticity
Subtitle: Effect of price changes on mobility tool ownership
Abstract: The study analyzes how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticities are derived. Based on data collected in stated choice and stated adaptation experiments that were conducted as computer-based face-to-face surveys, a structural equation model was estimated. The resulting fuel price elasticities are primarily dependent on fuel type and fuel price level, but sociodemographic variables, such as income, also have significant effects on elasticity. The price elasticity of gasoline for a prices of 1.5 CHF/l and 5 CH/l ranges between -0.31 and -0.60. For diesel and natural gas, the elasticities range between 0.32 and -0.67 and 2.74 and -0.93 whereas the positive elasticity values are caused by substitution effects. The mainly observed demand reactions given higher fuel prices are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller engine and diesel cars. As natural gas and electric engined cars were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can only serve as trend whereas no stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. Although the results presented herein are based on the for this topic novel stated adaption approach, the results are comparable to other studies, namely to the recent time series based fuel price elasticity study of Baranzini et al. (2009). They report a long term price elasticity of -0.27 for all fuels and -0.34 for gasoline. In terms of a possible impact of fuel prices on residence location choice, the results suggest a high aversion to moving away from the current type of residence location. The willingness to pay more before moving to a more central location that has lower mobility costs is dependent on income and the spatial types of both the old and envisaged residence location. For an average income, mobility costs range between 463 CHF/month in the case of a residence location change from an agglomeration to an urban area and 2040 CHF/month when moving from a rural area to the city center. In addition, differences in the valuations of housing, car and public transport costs are identified, in which car costs are generally the least negatively valued. SP1: Effect of price changes on mobility tool ownership The first of three stated preference experiments is designed as a stated adaption experiment. Given today's residence, but a new price regime of mobility costs, the respondent has to indicate the respective choice and usage of mobility tools for all household members. Each respondent is confronted with six such situations, which are predefined by the experiment plan. The experiment plan is constructed by orthogonal design and combines three variables with different levels. For each situation, only one incentive type is considered.
Published in: Travel Survey Metadata Series
Volume: 50
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Stated Preference, Fuel price, Mobility tool ownership
Language: English
Keyword: Stated Preference, Fuel price, Mobility tool ownership
DBID source: FORM-1386683723
, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: MATSim-based decision support system
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: MATSim Conceptual Meeting
Event date: June 13, 2013
Place: Zürich
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383036705
, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: How to solve the problem of bus bunching
Published in: The Straits Times
Pages: A30 - A30
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369666183
, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: How to improve public transport services in Jurong Lake District?
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: IDA Tech Showcase @ JLD CFC Networking Event
Event date: May 7, 2013
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369660382
, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Activity Based Modelling, Accessibility and High Rises
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Future Cities Laboratory
Event date: March 2013
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369658145
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander
Title: Accessibility on a micro-level
Subtitle: A closer look at pedestrian routing and network generation
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to investigate ways to determine realistic pedestrian distances from an origin to a destination and to calculate geographic extents based on pedestrian distances. Pedestrian movement and routing research employs a range of methods, requiring different types of data. Pedestrian movement is employed on the microscopic level. Research towards pedestrian networks has focused on generating sidewalks from different types of data sources in large areas. In pedestrian movement and network generation research generalized costs for pedestrians have not been investigated for different user groups. We take methods from movement research and investigate the possibility to employ this on a larger scale for routing purposes. Network generation methods and data sources are compared with each other and ground-truth. For future research we envisage a hybrid approach combining a grid for certain areas with a backbone of sidewalks and different link costs for different user groups.
Published in: Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
Volume: 9
Pages: P206
ISSN: 1881-1132
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Tokyo
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Pedestrian networks, Pedestrian movement, Accessibility, Routing
Event name: 10th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS 2013)
Event date: September 9-12, 2013
Place: Taipei, Taiwan
Language: English
Keyword: Pedestrian networks, Pedestrian movement, Accessibility, Routing
DBID source: FORM-1367313015
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Effects of congestion pricing and public transport prioritization in a multimodal context
Subtitle: Welfare analysis in an activity-based model
Pages: 109
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Evanston
Publication status: Published
Event name: Annual Conference of the International Transportation Economics Association (Kuhnmo NECTAR 2013)
Event date: July 10-12, 2013
Place: Chicago, IL, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383035657
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Effects of congestion pricing and public transport prioritization in a multimodal context
Subtitle: Welfare analysis in an activity-based model
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Evanston, IL, USA
Publication status: Published
Event name: Annual Conference of the International Transportation Economics Association (Kuhnmo NECTAR 2013)
Event date: 10-12 July 2013
Place: Chicago, IL, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383034149
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander
Title: Putting a price on travel
Published in: Today
Pages: 16 - 19
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369663440
, Axhausen, Kay W., Bratrich, Christine, Lippuner, Catherine, Erath, Alexander, 2013 >>
Author(s): Axhausen, Kay W., Bratrich, Christine, Lippuner, Catherine, Erath, Alexander
Title: ETH Sustainability Summer School: Future Cities - Network and Grammars
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: ETH Sustainability Summer School
Event date: 24 June - 12 July, 2013
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1383037492
, Sun, Lijun, Gang Jin, Jian, Lee, Der-Horng, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Gang Jin, Jian, Lee, Der-Horng, Erath, Alexander
Title: Designing a demand responsive timetable for MRT services
Abstract: Mass rapid transit systems (MRT) have become the most important public transport mode in many major cities globally, given its advantages in larger capacity, faster velocity and higher reliability compared with other modes. Hence, various projects directed to improve service quality of MRT systems by optimizing operation strategies have been conducted worldwide. Among numerous methods to adjust operation parameters for MRT services, timetable optimization has emerged as the simplest and most effective cure. On one hand, a demand responsive timetable has the potential to improve service quality by reducing both waiting time and crowdedness on trains. On the other hand, for transit operators, a demand responsive timetable will improve operation stability and hence reliability. In this study, we propose an optimization model to solve timetable scheduling considering fine grained dynamic demand data. The objective is to minimize the total waiting time for all the passengers. Historical demand data extracted from smart card system is used as inputs. Then, a predefined demand responsive timetable will be generated with the optimization model. Since operational constraints such as the number of available trains and minimal headway are considered as boundary conditions, we ensure that the proposed schedule actually has the potential to be implemented in actual operation. A case study on a representative MRT service is conducted and presented in this paper. In the absence of effective/operated timetable, simulations on the optimal timetable obtained from this proposed model and simplified timetable as extracted from Google Maps are performed based on detailed travel demand extracted from smart card transactions. The result demonstrates the applicability of the proposed model in designing a demand sensitive timetable and its potential to minimize waiting times. However, simplified assumptions concerning potential operational constraints when switching directions or manpower scheduling, restrain the immediate application of the obtained results.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 795
Publication date / Date received: 2012-07-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Timetable, MRT, Public transit
Language: English
Keyword: Timetable, MRT, Public transit
DBID source: FORM-1343999963
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007340032
Nebis system number: 007340032
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Object-fine choice models for long-term decisions
Subtitle: Which level of granularity is necessary? A review of literature
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-04-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1338375079
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007300716
Nebis system number: 007300716
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander
Title: Overcoming challenges in road pricing design with an agent-based transport simulation
Abstract: Vast majority of economists and transportation planners today agree on congestion pricing being an efficient instrument for regulation of growing transport demand and addressing the urgent issue of road congestion in urban areas. Though many are still concerned with challenges associated with computation of optimal toll as well as its transferability to simplified, real-world tolling solutions and the feasibility of large-scale implementation. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential and benefits resulting from use of agent-based simulation models in order to address these concerns and provide powerful tools for detailed evaluation of road pricing scenarios. Thereby, advantages of toll scenario implementation and analysis within an agent-based model are discussed based on multi-agent transportation simulation toolkit - MATSim and associated challenges and drawbacks are considered. Furthermore, potential applications of agent-based simulation for large-scale scenario analysis with different road pricing schemes are presented and outlook of future work using simulation-based approach optimization for design of road pricing schemes is given.2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-04-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1335973279
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007251042
Nebis system number: 007251042
, Sun, Lijun, Lee, Der-Horng, Erath, Alexander, Huang, Xianfeng, 2012 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Lee, Der-Horng, Erath, Alexander, Huang, Xianfeng
Title: Using Smart Card Data to Extract Passenger's Spatio-temporal Density and Train's Trajectory of MRT System
Abstract: Rapid tranit systems are the most important public transportation service modes in many large cities around the world. Hence, its service reliability is of high importance for government and transit agencies. Despite taking all the necessary precautions, disruptions cannot be entirely prevented but what transit agencies can do is to prepare to respond to failure in a timely and effective manner. To this end, information about daily travel demand patterns are crucial to develop efficient failure response strategies. To the extent of urban computing, smart card data offers us the opportunity to investigate and understand the demand pattern of passengers and service level from transit operators. In this present study, we present a methodology to analyze smart card data collected in Singapore, to describe dynamic demand characteristics of one case mass rapid transit (MRT) service. The smart card reader registers passengers when they enter and leave an MRT station. Between tapping in and out of MRT stations, passengers are either walking to and fro the platform as they alight and board on the trains or they are traveling in the train. To reveal the effective position of the passengers, a regression model based on the observations from the fastest passengers for each origin destination pair has been developed. By applying this model to all other observations, the model allows us to divide passengers in the MRT system into two groups, passengers on the trains and passengers waiting in the stations. The estimation model provides the spatio-temporal density of passengers. From the density plots, trains' trajectories can be identified and passengers can be assigned to single trains according to the estimated location. Thus, with this model, the location of a certain train and the number of onboard passengers can be estimated, which can further enable transit agencies to improve their response to service disruptions. Since the respective final destination can also be derived from the data set, one can develop effective failure response scenarios such as the planning of contingency buses that bring passengers directly to their final destinations and thus relieves the bridging buses that are typically made available in such situations.
Book title: Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD International Workshop on Urban Computing
Pages: 142 - 148
ISBN: 978-1-4503-1542-5
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: New York, NY
Publication status: Published
Event name: ACM SIGKDD International Workshop on Urban Computing (UrbComp 2012)
Event date: August 12-16, 2012
Place: Beijing, China
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347369320
DOI: 10.1145/2346496.2346519
, Sun, Lijun, Gang Jin, J., Lee, D.-H., Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Sun, Lijun, Gang Jin, J., Lee, D.-H., Erath, Alexander
Title: Designing a demand responsive timetable for MRT services
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 2nd Future Cities Laboratory Conference : Territorial Encounters
Event date: September 10-11, 2012
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1347377412
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Simulating Urban Transport for a Week Time Horizon Using MATSim
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 3rd Workshop on Time Use Observatory (TUO 3)
Event date: March 21-23, 2012
Place: Santiago, Chile
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347368137
, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Erath, Alexander
Title: Estimating dynamic workplace capacities using public transport smart card data
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 17th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: December 15-17, 2012
Place: Hong Kong
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347368653
, Lee, Der-Horng, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alex, 2012 >>
Author(s): Lee, Der-Horng, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alex
Title: Study of bus service reliability in Singapore using fare card data
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 12th Asia-Pacific ITS Forum & Exhibition 2012
Event date: April 16-18, 2012
Place: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347367052
, Lee, Der-Horng, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alex, 2012 >>
Author(s): Lee, Der-Horng, Sun, Lijun, Erath, Alex
Title: Determining Optimal Control Stop to Improve Bus Service Reliability
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems
Event date: September 4-7, 2012
Place: Lausanne, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1347369686
, Jäggi, Boris, Erath, Alexander, Dobler, Christoph, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Jäggi, Boris, Erath, Alexander, Dobler, Christoph, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Modeling household fleet choice as a function of fuel price using a multiple discrete continuous choice model
Abstract: In this Paper, a new model of fleet choice for households is presented that uses the multiple discrete-continuous extreme value (MDCEV) model as a framework. The aim of the model is to establish a model to allocate car types to activity based microscopic agent based transport simulations. What is new in the presented model, is that in addition to socioeconomic attributes of households, the choice is also influenced by fuel price. To model a range of fuel prices up to 20 USD/gallon a data base from a sophisticated stated adaption survey about mobility residential choice among approximately 400 Swiss households was used. The model had a choice set of 17 alternatives distinguishing car type and drive train. In the MDCEV model, a household chooses multiple car types and distributes an overall budget of vehicle miles travelled among the chosen alternatives. The model shows that fuel price has a much greater influence on the selection of the car type than on the use (VMT) of the car. In a certain range of fuel prices, households tend to switch from gasoline to diesel cars. The paper also contains an assessment of the residuals of the simulation that shows a reasonable performance of the model.
Published in: Transportation research record
Issue: 2302
Pages: 174 - 183
ISSN: 0361-1981
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Washington D.C.
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1312119179, WOS-000320206400019
DOI: 10.3141/2302-19
Nebis system number: 000024408
, Fröhlich, Phillip, Axhausen, Kay W., Vrtic, Milenko, Weis, Claude, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Fröhlich, Phillip, Axhausen, Kay W., Vrtic, Milenko, Weis, Claude, Erath, Alexander
Title: SP-Befragung 2010 zum Verkehrsverhalten im Personenverkehr
Abstract: Um die Reaktion des Verkehrsverhaltens auf Veränderungen des Verkehrsangebots inkl. Preise besser beurteilen zu können, wurde im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Raumentwicklung (ARE) mit Unterstützung einer Reihe von Kantonen und der SBB eine Stated Preference- Befragung (SP-Befragung) durchgeführt. Mit der Methode der SP-Befragung werden mögliche Verhaltensänderungen der Befragten durch die Vorgabe mehrerer Alternativen mit veränderten Rahmenbedingungen ermittelt. Die Bundesämter Statistik (BFS) und Raumentwicklung (ARE) führen im 5-Jahres-Rhythmus den Mikrozensus Mobilität und Verkehr durch, der sowohl bezüglich der Wegcharakteristiken als auch der Personenstichprobe repräsentativ für die Schweiz ist. Im Jahre 2010 ergab sich erstmals die Möglichkeit die Mikrozensus-Erhebung mit einer SP-Befragung zu ergänzen. In deren Rahmen wurden Daten für das Verkehrsmittelwahl- und Routenwahlverhalten erhoben, welche für die Weiterentwicklung des Nationalen Personenverkehrsmodells (NPVM) sowie für die Erstellung und Erweiterung kantonaler Verkehrsmodelle genutzt werden sollen.

Afin de mieux juger la réaction du comportement en matière de transports sur les changements de l'offre de transport (y inclus les prix), un sondage sur les préférences déclarées (Stated Preference, SP) a été conduit, commis par l'office fédéral du développement territorial (ARE) et supporté par plusieurs cantons et les CFF. Par la méthode des SP, les réactions possibles des personnes sondées sont évaluées en leur présentant différents scénarios pour lesquels les attributs des alternatives varient. Les offices fédéraux de la statistique (BFS) et du développement territorial (ARE) conduisent toutes les 5 années le Microrecensement mobilité et transports (MRMT), qui est un sondage représentatif pour la Suisse en ce qui concerne les caractéristiques des trajets et l'échantillon des personnes. En 2010, il se révéla pour la première fois la possibilité de combiner le Microrecensement avec un sondage SP, dans le carde duquel des données sur le comportement en matière de choix d'un véhicule et d'une route ont été relevées. Ces données serviront au développement du modèle national de transport de personnes (MNTP) ainsi qu'à l'établissement et l'élargissement de modèles cantonaux.

Per spiegare meglio la reazione delle persone, in termini di mobilità, a cambiamenti nell'offerta di trasporto, inclusi i prezzi, è stato condotto, su commissione dell'Ufficio federale dello sviluppo territoriale (ARE) e con l'appoggio di alcuni Cantoni e delle FFS, un sondaggio con questionari di tipo Stated-Preferences (questionari SP). Con il metodo SP si cercano di accertare possibili cambiamenti nel comportamento delle persone, in termini di mobilità, proponendo loro situazioni in cui scegliere tra pi alternative i cui attributi vengono variati. Gli uffici federali di Statistica (UST) e sviluppo territoriale (ARE), conducono ogni cinque anni il micro censimento per la mobilità e i trasporti su un campione rappresentativo per la Svizzera sia in termini di popolazione che per il tipo di tragitti. Nel 2010 c'è stata, per la prima volta, la possibilità di combinare questo censimento con un questionario SP, nel quale sono stati rilevati dati sulle abitudini di scelta del mezzo di trasporto e su quella del percorso, che saranno usati, sia per l'ulteriore sviluppo del modello nazionale del trasporto persone, che per la realizzazione e l'estensione di modelli cantonali di trasporto.

For the improved appraisal of travel behaviour reactions to changes in transport supply, including prices, the Swiss federal office for spatial development (ARE) commissioned a Stated Preference (SP) survey with the support of a number of cantons and the Swiss Federal Railways. With SP surveys, possible travel behaviour changes of the respondents are analyzed by presenting them different choice scenarios with varying attributes. Every 5 years the Swiss federal offices for statistics (BFS) and spatial development (ARE) carry out the mobility and transportation Microcensus, a survey which is representative for the Swiss population in terms of the trip characteristics and of the persons sampled. In 2010 the possibility arose for the first time to combine the Microcensus with a Stated Preference (SP) survey, in which data on mode and route choice behaviour were collected. These data sources will be used for the further development of the national person transport model as well as the establishment and extension of cantonal models.
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1340205473
, Erath, Alexander, Fourie, Pieter J., Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Fourie, Pieter J., Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Ordóñez Medina, Sergio A., Chakirov, Artem, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Large-scale agent-based transport travel demand model for Singapore
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research
Event date: July 15-20, 2012
Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1342254521
, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Potentials of Agent-based Transport Modelling for Environmental Impact Evaluation
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Japan Science and Technology Agency & National Environment Agency (Singapore) Environment and Technology Workshop 2012
Event date: August 23-24, 2012
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347376096
, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Perspectives of Future Urban Mobility and the Role of Transport Modeling as Complex System
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: A*Star Institute of High Performance Computing Student Seminar on Complex Systems
Event date: August 2, 2012
Place: Singapore
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347376247
, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Integrated Mobility
Abstract: Sustainable future cities will be animated by integrated systems for mobility. Transportation systems are the lifeblood of cities. Sustainable future cities will require diverse systems of public, private, motorized and non-motorized mobility. These will be integrated to each other, and will be essential for economically buoyant, socially equitable, and vibrant mixed-use urban quarters.
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 5 Propositions for Sustainable Future Cities : FCL Forum at World Cities Summit 2012
Event date: July 4, 2012
Place: Singapore
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1347376533
, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: A statistical approach of modeling road network vulnerability
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 5th International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability
Event date: December 18-19, 2012
Place: Hong Kong
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347366157
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Vehicle ownership in Singapore using revealed-preference data and spatial variables
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research
Event date: July 15-20, 2012
Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1342253961
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, 2012 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander
Title: Activity Identification and Primary Location Modelling based on Smart Card Payment Data for Public Transport
Abstract: The introduction of electronic payment systems for public transport in many cities all over the world enabled collection of detailed and comprehensive data records of public transport journeys. Processing and mining of these data opens new opportunities in transport modelling and travel behaviour research. In particular its potential for identification and analysis of activities, which cause regular travels, represents a highly interesting research question. In this paper, opportunities for detection of primary activities, as home and work activities, and their locations based on records of smart card fare payment system for public transport are investigated. Thereby the city-state of Singapore is used as a case-study. In order to gain information about country specific activity characteristics and allow accurate model calibration, data from household travel survey is used. In particular, two major activity detection models are considered: a simple rule-based model using only activity duration for detection of work activities and more involved discrete choice modelling approach using additional variables as activity start-time and land-use information, and distinguishing between home, work and other activities. In particular, the benefit resulting from including land-use information into the discrete choice model is evaluated and models with and without it are compared. The developed models are applied to the full record of public transport journeys in Singapore and outcomes are compared against each other. In conclusion, challenges associated with analysis of longer time periods consisting out of journey data for several days are discussed.2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Smart card data, Activity location modelling, Public transport, Working locations
Event name: 13th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research
Event date: July 15-20, 2012
Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Language: English
Keyword: Smart card data, Activity location modelling, Public transport, Working locations
DBID source: FORM-1342020620
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-007328823
Nebis system number: 007328823
, Jäggi, Boris, Erath, Alexander, Dobler, Christoph, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Jäggi, Boris, Erath, Alexander, Dobler, Christoph, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Modeling household fleet choice as a function of fuel price using a multiple discrete-continuous choice model
Abstract: In this Paper, a new model of fleet choice for households is presented that uses the multiple discrete-continuous extreme value (MDCEV) model as a framework. The aim of the model is to establish a model to allocate car types to activity based microscopic agent based transport simulations. What is new in the presented model, is that in addition to socioeconomic attributes of households, the choice is also influenced by fuel price. To model a range of fuel prices up to 20 USD/gallon a data base from a sophisticated stated adaption survey about mobility residential choice among approximately 400 Swiss households was used. The model had a choice set of 17 alternatives distinguishing car type and drive train. In the MDCEV model, a household chooses multiple car types and distributes an overall budget of vehicle miles traveled among the chosen alternatives. The model shows that fuel price has a much greater influence on the selection of the car type than on the use (VMT) of the car. In a certain range of fuel prices, households tend to switch from gasoline to diesel cars. The paper also contains an assessment of the residuals of the simulation that shows a reasonable performance of the model.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 689
Publication date / Date received: 2011-07-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1346336972
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006567741
Nebis system number: 006567741
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Mobility Pricing
Subtitle: Zahlungsbereitschaft und Verhaltensreaktionen
Abstract: In der verkehrspolitischen Diskussion nimmt Mobility Pricing einen prominenten Platz ein. Dabei geht es einerseits um die Umstrukturierung der Preise im motorisierten Individualverkehr (MIV) und Öffentlichen Verkehr (ÖV) zu verstärkt benutzungsbezogenen Abgaben und andererseits um die Beeinflussung der Nachfrage. Auf den MIV beschränktes Mobility Pricing ist auch unter dem Begriff Road Pricing bekannt. Die technische Realisierbarkeit von Road Pricing wurde im Ausland in einigen Städten und Regionen gezeigt. Es bestehen aber Wissenslücken bezüglich der Auswirkungen preislicher Massnahmen auf die Wahl des Ziels, des Verkehrsmittels, der Fahrtroute und der Abfahrtszeit, sowie auf Siedlungsstrukturen, Verkehrssicherheit und Umwelt. Der vorliegende Aufsatz legt den Schwerpunkt auf die Verhaltensänderungen in der Verkehrsmittel- und Routenwahl und der Wahl der Abfahrtszeit. Es werden folgende Fragen beantwortet:
• Wie hoch ist die Zahlungsbereitschaft für Mobility Pricing? Wie unterscheidet sich diese von schon bekannten Zahlungsbereitschaften für Treibstoffpreise und/oder ÖV-Tickets?
• Wie verändert sich das Verkehrsverhalten durch die Einführung von Mobility Pricing? Wie sind die Abhängigkeiten zwischen Verkehrsverhalten und Mobility Pricing beschaffen und wie gross sind die kurzfristigen Veränderungen der Routenwahl, der Verkehrsmittelwahl und der Wahl der Abfahrtszeit?2
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Stuttgart
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Mobility Pricing, Road Pricing, Verhaltensänderungen, Verkehrsmodell, Schweiz
Event name: Heureka 2011
Event date: March 16-17, 2011
Place: Stuttgart, Germany
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Mobility Pricing, Road Pricing, Verhaltensänderungen, Verkehrsmodell, Schweiz
DBID source: FORM-1328548563
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006620713
Nebis system number: 006620713
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Mobility Pricing
Subtitle: Zahlungsbereitschaft und Verhaltensreaktionen
Abstract: In der verkehrspolitischen Diskussion nimmt Mobility Pricing einen prominenten Platz ein. Es bestehen aber Wissenslücken bezüglich der Auswirkungen preislicher Maßnahmen auf die Verhaltensentscheidungen der Verkehrsteilnehmer, sowie auf Siedlungsstrukturen, Verkehrssicherheit und Umwelt. Der Beitrag legt den Schwerpunkt auf die Verhaltensänderungen in der Verkehrsmittel- und Routenwahl und der Wahl der Abfahrtszeit. Es werden diese Fragen beantwortet: wie hoch ist die Zahlungsbereitschaft für Mobility Pricing und wie verändert sich das Verkehrsverhalten durch die Einführung von Mobility Pricing?
Published in: Strassenverkehrstechnik
Volume: 55
Issue: 10
Pages: 637 - 645
ISSN: 0039-2219
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Bonn-Bad Godesberg
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Architektur, Gebaute Umwelt und Umweltgestaltung allgemein|Architecture, Built Environment and Environmental Design, General, Mobility Pricing, Road Pricing, Verhaltensänderungen, Verkehrsmodell, Schweiz
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Mobility Pricing, Road Pricing, Verhaltensänderungen, Verkehrsmodell, Schweiz
DBID source: FORM-1315557174
Nebis system number: 000055725
, Ordóñez, Sergio, Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Ordóñez, Sergio, Erath, Alexander
Title: Semi-Automatic Tool for Map-Matching Bus Routes on High-Resolution Navigation Networks
Abstract: A map-matching approach is presented that combines public bus routes information (sequences of consecutive stop locations and sequences of geo-referenced points) with a high resolution network. It is especially designed to account for a) low temporal resolution of geo-referenced points and b) to allow that a stop which is served by several lines is attached to one single link only. Taking into account fixed link-stop relationships and other parameters an automatic solution using the A* search algorithm between consecutive stops is generated for each route. The link cost takes not only the travel time into account but also the distance to the geo-referenced points. For final corrections, the approach includes a user interface which allows visualizing and modifying the network and the sequences interactively. It is possible to add or remove links, replace link-stop relationships, and review the correctness of the result. The effectiveness of the approach is reported.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Map matching, Public bus system, High-resolution navigation network, Semi-automatic
Event name: 16th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: December 17-20, 2011
Place: Hong Kong, China
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Map matching, Public bus system, High-resolution navigation network, Semi-automatic
DBID source: FORM-1322822907
, Erath, Alexander Lucas, 2011 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander Lucas
Title: Vulnerability assessment of road transport infrastructure
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
ETH dissertation number: 19671
DBID source: FORM-1319996100
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006806584
Nebis system number: 006806584
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Urban sustainability transportation
Subtitle: Research framework for (M)edium and (L)ong term transport planning
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the research of the module Mobility and Transportation, one out of nine modules of the Future Cities Laboratory (FCL), the first interdisciplinary research group of the Singapore-ETH Center for Global Environmental Sustainability (SEC). The aim of the module is to advance research into the complexity of land transport, wshich derives from the demands of managing, planning and optimising the flow of people and goods at different time scales and in its interaction with all elements of the future city.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Medium and Long term modelling, Activity-based transport demand modelling, MATSim
Event name: 16th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: December 17-20, 2011
Place: Hong Kong, China
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Medium and Long term modelling, Activity-based transport demand modelling, MATSim
DBID source: FORM-1322823674
, Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Daily Flows
Subtitle: (M)edium and (L)ong Term
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: Urban Sustainability R&D Congress 2011
Event date: June 27-28, 2011
Place: Singapore, Republic of Singapore
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1309809364
, Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Lehner, Manuel, Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Eggermond, Michael A.B. van, Lehner, Manuel, Erath, Alexander
Title: Modeling Hedonic Prices in Singapore
Abstract: This paper presents hedonic regressions for the Singaporean residential real-estate market. To these means, asking prices were collected from an online commercial property portal in February 2011. Transaction prices were collected from governmental data sets. These data sets are enhanced with locational data, such as vicinity to bus stops, MRT stations, supermarkets, (top) primary schools and other points of interests. Models were estimated with standard OLS, spatial auto regressive and geographically weighted regression methods for several sub-markets: private rental & buying and public (HDB) rental & buying. Floor area and distance to CBD are the most important drivers of house price. Dependent on the market, vicinity to public transport has a positive result. A higher floor level is considered positive as well. Furthermore, we find that spatial models function better than traditional OLS models and that using asking prices and transaction prices yields similar results despite the large difference between both types of prices.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Hedonic pricing, Spatial regression, Singapore, Real-estate
Event name: 16th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: December 17-20, 2011
Place: Hong Kong, China
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Hedonic pricing, Spatial regression, Singapore, Real-estate
DBID source: FORM-1322823256
, Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Chakirov, Artem, Erath, Alexander
Title: Use of Public Transport Smart Card Fare Payment Data for Travel Behaviour Analysis in Singapore
Abstract: Electronic payment systems for public transport, introduced in many cities all over the world during the last decade, are able to capture system transactions and provide comprehensive data records on usage of public transport. Processing and analysis of this data opens new opportunities in transportation and travel behaviour research and is becoming an emerging research topic. This paper presents an analysis of one full day of public transport smart card activity for the entire city-state of Singapore and investigates its potential for characterization of public transport system and urban travel behaviour. In particular, an assessment of spatial and temporal travel behaviour including mode choice, travel- and waiting times is performed using statistical tools and data mining techniques. Thereby data reveals country specific preferences and behaviours as the influence of high passenger volumes and seat availability on route choice decisions and travel times. Furthermore data's ability to detect travel patterns and infer peoples travel purposes and locations of regular activities is investigated and strategies for modelling of home and work locations are presented. Additionally, household survey data from 2008 is used for comparison of multi modal travel patterns involving public and private transport.
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Public transport, Smart card data, Travel behaviour
Event name: 16th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies
Event date: December 17-20, 2011
Place: Hong Kong, China
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Public transport, Smart card data, Travel behaviour
DBID source: FORM-1322823384
, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander
Title: Urban Sustainability and Transportation
Subtitle: Research Framework for Medium and Long Term Transport Planning
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the research of the module, Mobility and Transportation, one out of nine modules of the Future Cities Laboratory (FCL), the first interdisciplinary research group of the Singapore-ETH Centre for Global Environmental Sustainability (SEC). The aim of the module is to advance research into the complex arena of land transport, which derives from the demands of managing, planning and optimising the flow of people and goods at different time scales and the interaction of these aspects with all elements of the future city.
Published in: Journeys
Volume: 2011
Issue: 7
Pages: 7 - 19
ISSN: 1793-494X
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1326844591
, Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander, 2011 >>
Author(s): Axhausen, Kay W., Erath, Alexander
Title: Daily Flows
Subtitle: Medium and Long Term Research in Transport Planning at Future Cities Laboratory
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Singapore
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1320754294
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: The Impacts of road pricing on route and mode choice behaviour
Abstract: This paper summarises the results of an extensive stated preference (SP) survey, conducted in Switzerland in order to obtain detailed information for the evaluation of road pricing schemes. Four different SP experiments were included: one about the political acceptability of road pricing and the other three about route, mode and departure time choice behaviour in the presence of road pricing. The questionnaires of 1005 respondents were used in a multinomial logit analysis of the latter three experiments. The values of travel time savings (VTTS) depended nonlinearly on the individual's income, travel time and overall travel costs. The respondents' evaluation of the cost components of fuel, tolls and parking differed significantly. Shifts in departure time depended on the choice situation were negatively valued. Furthermore, the importance of political preferences, as measured in the SP survey on acceptability, could be demonstrated, as the inclusion improved the model fit significantly as well as the reliability of the results.2
Published in: Journal of Choice Modelling
Volume: 3
Issue: 1
Pages: 109 - 126
ISSN: 1755-5345
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: London
Publication status: Published
Subjects: GPS data, Postprecessing, Trip detection, Activity detection, Mode detection, Fuzzy logic, Map matching
Event name: 11th World Conference on Transportation Research
Event date: June 24-28, 2007
Place: Berkeley, CA, USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: GPS data, Postprecessing, Trip detection, Activity detection, Mode detection, Fuzzy logic, Map matching
DBID source: FORM-1288166360
DOI: 10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70031-9
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Long term fuel price elasticity
Subtitle: Effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice
Abstract: The study analyzes how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticities are derived.
Based on data collected in stated choice and stated adaptation experiments that were conducted as computer-based face-to-face surveys, a structural equation model was estimated. The resulting fuel price elasticities are primarily dependent on fuel type and fuel price level, but sociodemographic variables, such as income, also have significant effects on elasticity. theprice elasticity of gasoline for a prices of 1.5 CHF/l and 5 CH/l ranges between -0.31 and -0.60. For diesel and natural gas, the elasticities range between 0.32 and -0.67 and 2.74 and -0.93 whereas the positive elasticity values are caused by substitution effects. The mainly observed demand reactions given higher fuel prices are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller engine and diesel cars. As natural gas and electric engined cars were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can only serve as trend whereas no stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. Although the results presented herein are based on the for this topic novel stated adaption approach, the results are comparable to other studies, namely to the recent time series based fuel price elasticity study of Baranzini et al. (2009). They report a long term price elasticity of -0.27 for all fuels and -0.34 for gasoline. In terms of a possible impact of fuel prices on residence location choice, the results suggest a high aversion to moving away from the current type of residence location. The willingness to pay more before moving to a more central location that has lower mobility costs is dependent on income and the spatial types of both the old and envisaged residence location. For an average income, mobility costs range between 463 CHF/month in the case of a residence location change from an agglomeration to an urban area and 2040 CHF/month when moving from a rural area to the city center. In addition, differences in the valuations of housing, car and public transport costs are identified, in which car costs are generally the least negatively valued.

Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die langfristigen Wirkungen steigender Treibstoffpreise. Dabei mitberücksichtigt werden mÖgliche Auswirkungen bezüglich der Wahl und des Besitzes von Mobilitätswerkzeugen, also Personenwagen und Abonnementen des Öffentlichen Verkehrs (ÖV), und deren Nutzung. Zusätzlich wird der Einfluss der Mobilitätskosten auf dieWohnstandortwahl untersucht.
Zu diesem Zweck wurden in einer persÖnlichen, computer-unterstützten Befragung 409 Haushalte in einem ersten Teil über ihren derzeitigen Besitz von Mobilitätswerkzeugen sowie deren Benutzung befragt und die Beschreibung ihrer soziodemografischen Eigenschaften aufgenommen. Im zweiten, zentralen Teil der Befragung wurde mit verschiedenen stated preference Methoden dieWirkung von steigenden Treibstoffpreisen bezüglich des Besitzes und der Nutzung von Mobilitätswerkzeugen sowie der Wahl des Wohnstandortes untersucht. Zunächst wurden in sechs Situationen Treibstoff- und ÖV-Preise im Bereich zwischen 1.5 CHF/l und 5 CHF/l, respektive 90-120 % des heutigen Preisniveaus verändert (SP1). Daneben wurde der Einfluss von verschiedenen CO2-Anreizsystemen untersucht. Gemäss der Methodik der stated adaptation waren die Befragten dazu aufgefordert ihre Mobilitätswerkzeugwahl und deren Nutzung anzugeben. Personenwagen konnten nach Fahrzeug- und Motorentyp sowie Hubraum ausgewählt werden. Als ÖV-Abonnemente standen die drei gängigsten Varianten Halbtax, Tarifverbund und GA zur Wahl. In sechs weiteren Situationen (SP2) sollten sich die Befragten vorstellen, wie sich ihr Mobilitätswerkzeugbesitz und -nutzung für einen gegebenen Wohnort an anderer räumlicher Lage als der heutigen ändern würde. Zusätzlich wurde, wie bereits bei den ersten sechs Entscheidungssituationen, auch die Ausgestaltung der Mobilitätskosten verändert. Der letzte Teil (SP3) der Befragung kombinierte aus diesen zwÖlf Situationen (mitsamt der präferierten Zusammensetzung von Mobilitätswerkzeugen und deren Nutzung) je zwei zu sechs stated choice Entscheidungssituationen. Mit diesem Teil der Befragung wurde untersucht, inwiefern steigende Mobilitätskosten auf die Wohnstandortwahl einen Einfluss ausüben.
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Bern
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1287573023, FORM-1292872188
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Joint Failure Vulnerability of Transportation Infrastructure
Abstract: Infrastructure disruption caused by natural hazards is a reality for transportation networks and might become even more important with an increase of such incidents due to climate change. However, only little research has been carried out so far to integrate vulnerability into the planning process and the management of transport infrastructures. After we presented in earlier papers how vulnerability due to single link failures can be quantitatively integrated in the management of large road infrastructure networks, this paper focuses on the development of methodologies to assess joint failure vulnerability. For intensely used road networks in densely populated countries, like Switzerland, a reliable assessment of the additional user costs has to be based on traffic assignments which consider congestion effects. Depending on the network topology, the demand distribution and the availability of alternative destinations, also mode and destination choice shifts need to be considered when computing link failure consequences. Since the failure of every link represents a single scenario, the network-wide assessment of single link failures is computationally burdensome, despite different, successfully implemented speed-up strategies such as the usage of subnetworks. However, for single link failures the number of scenarios is restricted to the number of links in the network and the network-wide assessment remains feasible. Assuming independence of link failures, the number of scenarios to be considered scales exponentially with the considered number of jointly failed links within one scenario. Given typical planning network sizes of several thousand nodes and links the full enumeration of possible scenarios becomes infeasible. Regarding the use of failure assessment in infrastructure management systems (IMS) which optimize the allocation of resources for maintenance and natural hazard protection and mitigation measures, two problem approaches seem feasible: First, the assumption of independence of link failure can be relaxed since the threat of natural hazards usually is locally restricted. Depending on the considered natural hazard, the interdependence of natural hazard threats to infrastructure could be evaluated based on natural hazard maps. However, natural hazard maps are not available throughout all relevant regions and do usually not consider joint risk probabilities. Second, optimization algorithms can be employed to detect the combination of link failures that lead to the highest failure induced cost whereby the considered hazard area and the number of failed links can be restricted according to the type of natural hazard. In this paper we focus on the later approach and present different optimization heuristics to detect those combinations of link failures which lead to the highest failure induced cost. In addition, the effectiveness of the considered heuristics with respect to their ability to detect the effectively worst case scenario will be assessed: for several different smaller networks of different network topology and demand characteristics (i.e. subnetworks that are cut out of the Swiss planning network) full enumerations of joint link failure (with restrictions of the number of jointly failed links) are computed. The results of these full enumerations are then used as benchmarks against the results of different optimizations heuristics are evaluated. Thereby, special attention is paid on whether and how network topology and demand characteristics might influence the effectiveness of the tested optimization heuristics. The derived findings will then determine the heuristics used for the analysis of the entire Swiss planning network which is also covered by the paper.
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Event name: European Transport Conference 2010 (ETC 2010)
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1403562913
, Erath, Alex, Birdsall, James, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin, Rade, 2009 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex, Birdsall, James, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin, Rade
Title: Vulnerability assessment methodology for Swiss road network
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology that incorporates vulnerability to natural hazards into current infrastructure management systems. The paper is mainly concerned with presenting the methodology applied to assess the transport-related consequences of link failures, including congestion effects on a networkwide scale. Four possible demand shifts caused by single link failures can be expected: detours, shifts in mode choice, shifts in destination choice, and trip–activity suppression. The paper demonstrates that detours are by far the predominant demand reaction. Hence, the quantification of detour-based principal consequences is the main focus. The main challenge was to overcome the calculation time intensity of this equilibrium-based approach. Since demand shift effects were assumed to be spatially restricted around the failed link, subnetworks were used, that is, limited sections of the complete network that were cut out, including their internal and transit demands. The resulting failures turned out to be consistent with those that involved the full network, even for links with long path distances or long detours. On the basis of computed consequences of link failures and on link parameters, a statistical model was developed to reveal and quantify the main factors defining transport-related consequences. Furthermore, the findings highlight potential gains, including rail networks, mode shifts, and destination choice shifts in network vulnerability assessments.
Published in: Transportation research record
Volume: 2137
Pages: 118 - 126
ISSN: 0361-1981
Publication date / Date received: 2009-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-51067, WOS-000274589500014
DOI: 10.3141/2137-13
Nebis system number: 000024408
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Bürgle, Michaela, Axhausen, Kay W., Frejinger, Emma, Stojanovic, Jelena, Bierlaire, Michel, Rudel, Roman, Scagnolari, Stefano, Maggi, Rico, 2008 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Bürgle, Michaela, Axhausen, Kay W., Frejinger, Emma, Stojanovic, Jelena, Bierlaire, Michel, Rudel, Roman, Scagnolari, Stefano, Maggi, Rico
Title: Einbezug von Reisekosten bei der Modellierung des Mobilitätsverhaltens = Intégration des frais de déplacements dans la modélisation du comportement de mobilité = Including travelling costs in the modelling of mobility behaviour
Abstract: 2
Published in: Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation, Bundesamt für Strassen
Issue: 1191
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: [Bern]
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Volkswirtschaft, Betriebswirtschaft|National Economy, Business Economics
Language: German
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: PP-33345, PP-31304, PP-31325
Nebis system number: 005567857
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schuessler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, K.W., Frejinger, E., Stojanovic, J., Bierlaire, M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi, R., 2008 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schuessler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, K.W., Frejinger, E., Stojanovic, J., Bierlaire, M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi, R.
Title: Einbezug von Reisekosten bei der Modellierung des Mobilitätsverhalten
Abstract: 2
Published in: Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation, Bundesamt für Strassen
Volume: 1191
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Bern
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-31325
Nebis system number: 005567857
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schuessler, N., Erath, A., Axhausen, K.W., Frejinger, E., Stojanovic, J., Bierlaire, M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi, R., 2008 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schuessler, N., Erath, A., Axhausen, K.W., Frejinger, E., Stojanovic, J., Bierlaire, M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi, R.
Title: Einbezug von Reisekosten bei der Modellierung des Mobilitätsverhalten
Abstract: 2
Published in: Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation, Bundesamt für Strassen
Volume: 1191
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Bern
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-31304
Nebis system number: 005567857
, Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Zeitwerte im Personenverkehr
Subtitle: Wahrnehmungs- und Distanzabhängigkeit
Abstract: 1.1 Ziel Verlässlich geschätzte Zahlungsbereitschaften für Reisezeitverbesserungen sind eine zentrale EingangsgrÖsse regionaler und nationaler verkehrsplanerischer Vorhaben. Die gebräuchlichste Methode um solche Zahlungsbereitschaften zu berechnen sind so genannte stated preference-Befragungen, bei denen den Befragten verschiedene Alternativen eines Wegs zur Wahl unterbreitet werden. Anhand der getroffenen Entscheide lassen sich dann die Einflüsse einzelner Attribute eines Wegs beziffern und somit Zahlungsbereitschaften berechnen. Allerdings wiesen die Ergebnisse verschiedener Studien, auch wenn diese bezüglich Untersuchungsraum und -zeit nur in geringem Masse differieren, immer wieder unterschiedliche Zahlungsbereitschaften aus. Diese Forschungsarbeit hat sich deswegen das Ziel gesetzt, die Datensätze verschiedener Befragungen zusammenzuführen und gemeinsame Zahlungsbereitschaften zu schätzen. Dazu wurden Daten von vier Untersuchungen zusammen geführt, die in der Schweiz zwischen 2001 und 2006 durchgeführt wurden und gemeinsam modelliert. Die Forschungsarbeit verfolgte dabei drei Ziele: Zunächst wurde erwartet, dass aufgrund der grÖsseren Datenbasis repräsentativere Werte der Zahlungsbereitschaft angegeben werden kÖnnen. Weiter umfassen einige der Datensätze neben der Fahrzeit und Reisekosten auch Umsteigevorgänge, Taktfolgezeit und den Zugang zum Öffentlichen Verkehr. Dies sollte, neben der Angabe der Zahlungsbereitschaften für eingesparte Fahrzeit, auch die Angabe der Bewertung des Takts, des Umsteigens und der Zugangszeit ermÖglichen. Und nicht zuletzt sollte, wie der Titel der Arbeit bereits erwähnt, die Reisedistanz- und Einkommensabhängigkeit der Zahlungsbereitschaften für unterschiedliche Fahrzwecke untersucht werden. 1.2 Vorgehen Zunächst wurden für die einzelnen Datensätze separate Modelle, die den aktuellen Stand der Forschung reflektieren, geschätzt. Ziel bei der Modellierung war es für alle Datensätze Modelle zu finden, die zum einen den anwendungsspezifischen Eigenheiten Rechnung tragen, zum anderen aber einer gemeinsamen Logik gehorchen, nach welcher beispielsweise Abhängigkeiten der Zahlungsbereitschaft und des Einkommen sowie der Reisedistanz nachgewiesen werden kÖnnen.Wie erwartet unterscheiden sich die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Studien, was nicht weiter überraschend ist, da sich die Datensätze bezüglich mittlerer Reiseweite, Befragungsraum und-fokus unterscheiden. Anschliessend wurden die Datensätze zusammengefügt und basierend auf den datensatzspezifischen Modellen gemeinsam geschätzt. Dabei wurden gemeinsame Parameter für diejenige Variablen vorgesehen, welche die Zahlungsbereitschaft direkt beeinflussen. Es sind dies die Bewertungsparameter der Fahrzeit, der Reisekosten, des Umsteigens, der Taktfrequenz und des Zugangs zum ÖV, aber auch die Parameter, welche die Distanz- und Einkommensabhängigkeit, der voran genannten Variablen beschreiben. Parameter datensatzspezifischer Variablen, wie der Komfortfaktor eines Tram, der nur in einem Datensatz abgebildet ist, wurden weiterhin datensatzspezifisch berücksichtigt. 1.3 Ergebnisse Aufgrund der breiteren Datenbasis konnten breiter abgestützte Zahlungsbereitschaften berechnet werden, welche neben der Bewertung der eingesparter Fahrzeit auch die des Takts, des Umsteigens und der Zugangszeit umfassen. Bei der Modellierung erwiesen sich die Modellparameter des gemeinsamen Modells, sowohl mit, wie auch ohne Berücksichtigung einer Abhängigkeit der Zahlungsbereitschaft von Einkommen und Reisedistanz als sehr stabil. Die neu berechneten Werte bewegen sich, soweit diese vergleichbar sind, im selben Bereich, wie die bisherigen Werte, sind nun aber breiter abgestützt. Somit wurde das erste Ziel der Studie, verlässliche und breit abgestützte Zeitwerte angeben zu kÖnnen, erreicht. Tabelle I listet die Zahlungsbereitschaften, gewichtet nach dem Mikrozensus 2005 auf. Die Gewichtung wurde nÖtig, da die angegebenen Zahlungbereitschaften von Einkommen und Reisedistanz abhängig sind, die für die Modellierung verwendeten Werte diesbezüglich jedoch von einer für die Schweiz repräsentativen Verteilung abweichen. Wie Tabelle I ebenfalls zeigt, konnten, gemäss dem zweiten Ziel der Studie, auch Zahlungbereitschaften des Takts, des Umsteigens und des Zugangswegs ausgewiesen werden. Tabelle I: Zahlungsbereitschaften, gewichtet mit den Werten des Mikrozensus 2005 Gewichtete Zahlungsbereitschaft [CHF/h] (Standardabweichung) alle Wegzwecke Pendler Geschäftlich Freizeit Einkaufen Fahrzeit PW 22.23 (5.2) 30.02 (2.65) 30.77 (24.61) 21.05 (6.06) 19.78 (8.26) Fahrzeit ÖV 13.77 (3.99) 15.35 (4.18) 34.1 (14.63) 11.46 (3.28) 11.76 (3.46) Takt 4.71 (1.77) 4.37 (1.32) 9.43 (2.42) 4.13 (1.59) 4.19 (0.85) Umsteigen [CHF/U] 2.34 (1.44) 1.92 (0.79) 3.55 (2.42) 2.38 (1.59) 1.94 (0.85) Umsteigezeit 6.16 (5.19) 4.11 (2.39) 48.71 (33.29) 8.9 (2.15) 6.74 (3.95) Zugangszeit 23.03 (8.66) 22.37 (1.79) 62.0 (15.29) 21.75 (7.24) 10.11 (5.94) Das dritte Ziel, durchgängig distanz- und einkommensabhängige Zeitwerte zu berechnen, konnte ebenfalls fast vollständig erreicht werden. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Zahlungsbereitschaft mit zunehmendem Einkommen und Wegdistanz ansteigt, dieser Anstieg aber mit hÖheren Einkommen und längerer Distanz aber flacher wird. Einzig bezüglich der Zahlungsbereitschaft im Einkaufsverkehr konnte keine Einkommensabhhängigkeit mit genügender statistischer Sicherheit nachgewiesen werden. Exemplarisch zeigt Abbildung I die Zahlungsbereitschaften als Mittelwerte für alle Reisezwecke. Abbildung I: Zahlungsbereitschaften, alle Wegzwecke 1 1.4 Empfehlung für die Anwendung Diese Studie beruht gegenüber der bisherigen Norm auf einer deutlich breiteren Datenbasis. Daraus ergeben sich Vorteile bezüglich Breite und Schärfe der berechneten Zahlungsbereitschaften. Daher wird empfohlen die bisherige Zeitkostennorm SN 641 822 mit den neuen, in dieser Studie angegebenen Werten zu aktualisieren, respektive zu ergänzen. 2.1 Objectives Des valeurs fiables pour la propension de payer pour des améliorations des temps de déplacement sont une grandeur d'entrée importante des projets de planification des transports régionaux et nationaux. La méthode la plus courante pour déterminer ces coûts horaires sont des enquête stated preference, dans lesquelles les interviewés doivent choisir entre différentes alternatives pour effectuer un trajet. En se fondant sur les choix, les influences des attributs individuels d'un trajet et les propensions correspondantes peuvent être calculés. Toutefois, les résultats de différentes études, quoique celles-ci ne diffèrent que marginalement en ce qui concerne les espaces et intervalles de temps considérés, présentent des différences considérables. Ce projet de recherche vise donc ? réunir les bases de données de ces projets individuels et d'estimer des coûts horaires consolidés. A cet effet, des données de quatre enquêtes, tiutes conduites en Suisse entre les années 2001 et 2006, ont été combinées et modélées conjointement. Le projet a servi trois buts: d'abord, on s'attendait ? des valeurs plus représentatives pour les coûts horaires en vertu de la base de données agrandie. De plus, certaines des données comprennent, accessoirement aux valeurs des temps des déplacements et les coûts de parcours, les nombres de transfers, les intervalles de desserte et l'accès aux transports en commun. Ceci devrait permettre d'indiquer les propensions de payer non seulement pour les temps du déplacement économisés, mais aussi pour les autres attributs relevants. En plus, les données permettent d'examiner les différences des coûts horaires pour les différents motifs de déplacement en fonction de la distance de déplacement et du revenu. 2.2 Méthodologie D'abord, des modèles séparés pour les bases de données individuelles ont été estimés, réflectant l'état de recherche actuel. Le but de la modélisation était de trouver des modèles tenant compte des propriétés spécifiques ? leur application, mais toutefois obéissant ? und logique cohérente par laquelle les dépendances des coûts horaires des distances de déplacement et des revenus. Comme on s'y attendait, les résultats des études diffèrent, ce qui n'est pas surprenant, les données étant différentes en ce qui concerne les valeurs moyennes pour les distances de déplacement et les objets de recherche. Ensuite, les bases de données ont été ressemblées et modélés conjointement sur la base des modèles individuels. Des paramètres communs ont été prévus pour les variables avec une influence directe sur les coûts horaires, par exemple les temps des déplacements et les coûts de parcours ainsi que les distances et revenus. Les paramètres de variables spécifiques ? une base de données individuelle, comme le comfort d'un tram, ont été estimés séparément pour les données correspondantes. 2.3 Résultats En vertu de la base de données agrandie, des valeurs consolidées pour les coûts unitaires des différents attributs (temps du déplacement, intervalle de desserte, nombre de transferts, temps d'accès) ont pu être calculées. Les paramètres estimés étaient très stables pour les modèles avec ou sans dépendance des distances et revenus. Les valeurs calculées sont du même ordre de grandeur que celles obtenues anérieurement, mais cette fois fondées sur une base plus large. Le premier but de l'étude a donc été satisfait. Le tableau I indique les coûts unitaires, pondérés selon le Microcensus 2005. La pondération a été nécessaire parce que les coûts unitaires sont dépendants des distances et revenus, les valeurs utilisées pour la modélisation étant cependat différentes de la distribution représentative pour la Suisse. Comme on peut aussi le voir dans le tableau I, les coûts unitaires pour le nombre de transferts, l'intervalle de desserte et le temps d'accèss ont été callculés. Tableau I: Les coûts unitaires, pondérés selon le Microcensus 2005 Les coûts unitaires, pondérés [CHF/h] (Ecart type) Tous les motifs Pendulaire Utilitaire Touristique Achats Voiture 22.23 (5.2) 30.02 (2.65) 30.77 (48.23) 21.05 (6.06) 19.78 (8.26) Transport public 13.77 (3.99) 15.35 (4.18) 34.1 (14.63) 11.46 (3.28) 11.76 (3.46) Fréquence 4.71 (1.77) 4.37 (1.32) 9.43 (2.42) 4.13 (1.59) 4.19 (0.85) Changer [CHF/C] 2.34 (1.44) 1.92 (0.79) 3.55 (2.42) 2.38 (1.59) 1.94 (0.85) Temps pour changer 6.16 (5.19) 4.11 (2.39)) 48.71 (33.29) 8.9 (2.15) 6.74 (3.95) Accès 23.03 (8.66) 22.37 (1.79) 62.0 (15.29) 21.75 (7.24) 10.11 (5.94) Le troisième but, le calcul de coûts horaires dépendants des distances et revenus, a presque complètement pu être satisfait. Ainsi, on a pu démontrer que les propensions de payer augmentent avec les revenus et distances parcourues, cette augmentation devenant cependant moins forte en fonction des distances et revenus. Seulement pour les déplacements pour motif d'achats, und dépendance des distances parcourues n'a pas pu être démontrée avec une certitude statistique suffisante. La figure I indique les aires des coûts unitaires comme valeurs moyennes pour tous les motifs de déplacement. Figure I: Les coûts unitaires, tous les motifs2 2.4 Recommandation pour l'âpplication En vertu de la base de données considérablement plus large comparée ? celle utilisée pour le calcul des valeurs indiquées dans la norme et de la qualité améliorée des coûts unitaires résultants, nous recommandons d'actualiser, respectivement compléter, la norme des coûts horaires du trafic des personnen SN 641 822 avec les valeurs nouvelles calculés dans cette étude. 3.1 Aim Travel time savings provide the bulk of the benefits arising from network expansion and capacity additions. For this reason, official guidelines provide approved values to monetarise the predicted travel time savings. The most used method to calculate such a willingness to pay (WTP) are so-called stated preference surveys, where the interviewee has to make his choice between different alternatives of a certain way. According to those decisions, it is possible to quantify the influence of the different variables and, based on this, to indicate the according WTP. However, the official values are only one piece of evidence on the valuation of travel times in a country or region as any concurrent or later study on route, mode, or destination choice will provide further estimates. The differences between these studies with respect to sampling frame, survey protocol, type of data (stated or revealed preference), modelling framework, variables considered or their functional form make direct comparison difficult, but nevertheless raise questions about each of the reported values. Hence, the aim of the study is to pool different datasets and to estimate joint WTP. Data of four surveys, all conducted in Switzerland between 2001 and 2006, were pooled and jointly estimated. The aim thereby was threefold: First, due to the broader data basis, it was expected to obtain more representative WTP values. Secondly, as some data sets contain about public transport transfers, headway and access to the next stop, the scope of the WTP values can be expanded. At least, as the title of the research reveals, it is expected to show the sensitivity of the WTP to income and trip distance. 3.2 Research Approach In a first step, all data sets were modeled individually reflecting recent research advances in discrete choice modeling. The aim thereby was to formulate models which, one the one hand, incorporate the differences between the studies with respect to survey protocol and considered variables, but, on the other hand, follow a mutual modeling strategy which allows to detect the sensitivity of WTP values to distance and income. The results of those models differ to a certain degree, which was expected, since the data sets differ in average trip distance and survey scope. Afterwards, the data sets were merged and, based on the insights of the individually estimated models, jointly modeled. Joint parameters were used for those variables which directly influence the WTP value, e.g. the parameters for travel time and distance but also for the sensitivity of distance and income. Parameters to variables which are data sets specific were incorporated individually. 3.3 Findings Based on the broader data basis, not only WTP values for travel time savings could be calculated but also for public transport transfers, access and headway. The parameters were stable during the modeling with and without the consideration of the sensitivity of the WTP values to income and distance. The newly estimated values differ only little from the old value of travel time savings study but base now upon a broader data basis what fulfills the first objective of the study. Table I gives an overview of the WTP values, weighted by the Microcensus 2005. The weighting became necessary because of the sensitivity of the WTP values to income and distance. The weighting accounts for the difference between the representative distribution of income and trip distance and the distributions within the used data sets. Furthermore, Table I provides WTP values also for public transport changes, access and headway of fulfilling the second objective of the study. Table I: Willingness to pay, weighted by incomes and distances of Microcensus 2005 Weighted WTP values [CHF/h] (Standard deviation) all trip purposes Commute Business Leisure Shopping Travel time car 22.23 (5.2) 30.02 (2.65) 30.77 (48.23) 21.05 (6.06) 19.78 (8.26) Travel time PT 13.77 (3.99) 15.35 (4.18) 34.1 (14.63) 11.46 (3.28) 11.76 (3.46) Headway 4.71 (1.77) 4.37 (1.32) 9.43 (2.42) 4.13 (1.59) 4.19 (0.85) Change [CHF/C] 2.34 (1.44) 1.92 (0.79) 3.55 (2.42) 2.38 (1.59) 1.94 (0.85) Transfer time 6.16 (5.19) 4.11 (2.39) 48.71 (33.29) 8.9 (2.15) 6.74 (3.95) Access time 23.03 (8.66) 22.37 (1.79) 62.0 (15.29) 21.75 (7.24) 10.11 (5.94) Finally, the third deliverable, the estimation of the sensitivity of WTP to income and distance could also be achieved. It could be shown that WTP increases with higher income and distance while the marginal utility decreases. However, the data did not support an income sensitivity for shopping trips. Exemplarily, Figure I shows the graphs of the WTP for travel time savings by car without a specific trip purpose. Figure I: Willingness to pay for travel time savings by car, all trip purposes3 3.4 Implementation Recommendations Due to the broad data basis of this study and hence the advantages regarding range and accuracy of the newly estimated WTP values, the authors recommend to update respectively amend the code of travel time savings (SN 640 822) with the new values.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Issue: 525
Pages: 1 - 75
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: PP-41299
Nebis system number: 005676947
, Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Estimated Value of Savings in Travel Time in Switzerland
Subtitle: Analysis of Pooled Data
Abstract: Reliable measures of the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) are a crucial input into policy planning in any regional or national context. However, the evidence from secondary or parallel VTTS studies often differs from those of official or national studies. In this paper, we present evidence from a study aimed at merging evidence from four separate VTTS studies conducted in Switzerland. The analysis shows the potential of models estimated jointly on the combined data, and produces very stable results that should be more representative of the overall population.
Book title: Travel behavior analysis 2008 : a peer-reviewed publication
Published in: Transportation research record
Volume: 2082
Pages: 43 - 55
ISBN: 0-309-12599-5, 978-0-309-12599-4
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Washington, D.C.
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation
Event name: 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 21-25, 2007
Place: Washington, D.C., USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-41275, WOS-000262774400006
DOI: 10.3141/2082-06
Nebis system number: 005753085
, Erath, Alexander, Löchl, Michael, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Löchl, Michael, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Graph-theoretical analysis of the Swiss road and railway networks over time
Abstract: Recent research of complex networks has significantly contributed to the understanding how networks can be classified according to its topological characteristics. However, transport networks attracted less attention although their importance to economy and daily life. In this work the development of the Swiss road and railway network during the years 1950–2000 is investigated. The main difference between many of the recently studied complex networks and transport networks is the spatial structure. Therefore, some of the well-established complex network measures may not be applied directly to characterise transport networks but need to be adapted to fulfil the requirements of spatial networks. Additionally, new approaches to cover basic network characteristics such as local network densities are applied. The focus of the interest hereby is always not only to classify the transport network but also to provide the basis for further applications such as vulnerability analysis or network development. It could be showed that the proposed measures are able to characterise the growth of the Swiss road network. To proof the use of local density measures to explain the robustness of a network however needs further research.
Published in: Networks and spatial economics
Volume: 9
Issue: 3
Pages: 379 - 400
ISSN: 1566-113X, 1572-9427
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Berlin
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Transport network topology, Network efficiency, Highway network development, Kernel density
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Transport network topology, Network efficiency, Highway network development, Kernel density
DBID source: PP-33313, PP-51049
DOI: 10.1007/s11067-008-9074-7
Nebis system number: 004387405
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin, Rade, Birdsall, John, 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin, Rade, Birdsall, John
Title: Consideration of Network Vulnerability in Infrastructure Management Systems
Abstract: Infrastructure disruption caused by natural hazards is a reality for transportation networks and might become even more important with an increase of such incidents due to climate change. However, only little research has been carried out so far to integrate vulnerability into the planning process and the management of transport infrastructures. Especially in developed countries the main attention of transport infrastructure development has shifted from network expansion and construction to the infrastructure management. To maintain the network efficiently infrastructure management systems (IMS) have been developed which determine optimal maintenance and improvement strategies for infrastructure components but they are not designed to integrate aspects of vulnerability. This paper presents a framework how vulnerability can be quantitatively integrated in the management of large road infrastructure networks and applies the methodology to the Swiss case. The project is carried out in two parallel streams. The first part identified hazard scenarios bringing together information about network components and natural hazard potential. The second part quantifies the additional user cost caused by a given hazard scenario and is the main focus of this paper. For intensely used road networks in densely populated countries, like Switzerland, a reliable assessment of the additional user costs has to be based on traffic assignments which consider congestion effects. As the duration of most failures is assumed to be less than two weeks no effect on travel demand is considered. Mode choice effects are also neglected as those are assumed to be small over the network as a whole. A further constraint was that the hazardous network component assessment was carried out parallel to the stream reported here. Therefore, at the beginning of the project it was not clear which links are endangered. However, with the special topography of Switzerland it can be assumed that large parts of the network might be affected. So, it was decided that the methodology to be applied must be able to deliver estimates of the consequences of failure for all links in the national road transport model, which covers all main roads. The national road transport model for Switzerland consists of around 20?000 links whose separate failures represent a case each. Given a calculation time of 50 minutes to reach equilibrium, full network assignments for all cases is unrealistic. Therefore an alternative approach was developed and validated. Analyses of full assignments showed that in most cases the effects of link failures are spatially restricted. The paper shows under what circumstances the application of subnetworks covering only a certain buffer around the affected link is appropriate, the accuracy that might be expected from such an approach and the optimal subnetwork size dependent on the local network topography and population and employment density respectively. Moreover, a statistical model is presented which enables authorities to estimate additional user costs caused by link failures without running an assignment model. This might be the case in developing countries where only information about the network, such as topology and traffic counts is readily available. The statistical model employs state-of-the-art methods accounting for spatial error and correlation effects and builds on earlier models predicting link speeds.2
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: European Transport Conference 2008 (ETC 2008)
Event date: 10 June 2008
Place: Noordwijkerhout, NL
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1428683465
, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: New Practices in Vulnerability Assessment
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to assess link failure induced transport related consequences including congestion across a national network. The main challenge is how to overcome the calculation time intensity of this equilibrium-based approach. Rather than employing the complete network for analysing a link failure, subnetworks are employed to model the spatially restricted demand shifts around a failed link. Each subnetwork is formulated by cutting a geographically defined selection of links and nodes out of the national network and including the internal and external demand traversing the subnetwork boundary. The failure consequences, even for links with long trip distances or long detours, assessed with the subnetwork are very consistent with those considering the full network. In addition, the bias associated with two basic assumptions of current practice in road network vulnerability assessment is analysed. It is demonstrated that the use of simplified networks, provided by current transport models, instead of high resolution networks has only minor impacts to accuracy. Furthermore, an approach to detect links where the assumption of inelastic demand leads to substantial bias is presented.
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: European Transport Conference 2008 (ETC 2008)
Event date: October 2008
Place: Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1403570356
, Erath, Alex, Birdsall, John, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin Rade, 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex, Birdsall, John, Axhausen, Kay W., Hajdin Rade
Title: Vulnerability Assessment of the Swiss Road Network
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for integrating vulnerability due to natural hazard into current infrastructure management systems. It is mainly concerned with presenting a methodology to assess link failure induced transportation related consequences including congestion related effects across a national network. The main challenge hereby considered is how to overcome the calculation time intensity of this equilibrium-based via equilibrium. Rather than employing the complete network for analyising a link failure, subnetworks are employed to model the spatially restricted demand shifts effects around a failed link. Each subnetwork is formulated by cutting a geographically defined selct of links and nodes out of the national network and including the internal and external demand transversing the subnetwork boudary. The failure consequences, even for links with long path distances or long detours, assessed with the subnetwork are very consistent with those considering the full network. A statistical model, highlighting and detailing the key factors defining transport related consequences, is developed from the computed link failure consequences and link parameters. Lastly, the findings highlight the potential gains to be derived from directly including rail networks and covering the potential mode shifts in the assessment.2
Published in: Working paper / IVT ; 513
Pages: 1 - 17
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-41320
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005652335
Nebis system number: 005652335
, Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: New pratices in vulnerability assessment
Subtitle: Applicability and Limitations
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to assess link failure induced transportation related consequences including congestion related effects across a national network. The main challenge hereby considered is how to overcome the calculation time intensity of this equilibrium-based approach. Rather than employing the complete network for analyising a link failure, subnetworks are employed to model the spatially restricted demand shifts effects around a failed link. Each subnetwork is formulated by cutting a geographically defined selection of links and nodes out of the national network and including the internal and external demand traversing the subnetwork boundary. In an other paper describing the same piece of research it was shown that the failure consequences, even for links with long path distances or long detours, assessed with the subnetwork are very consistent with those considering the full network. This paper discusses the applicability, sensitivity and limitations of the approach are proved by Three selective case studies: It is demonstrated that the use of simplified networks, provided by current transport models, instead of high resolution networks has only minor impacts to accuracy. However, in some cases the consideration of subordinate network elements leads to more appropriate results and is therefore necessary. The paper presents a methodology how these cases can be detected and processed. Furthermore, an approach to detect links where the assumption of inelastic demand leads to substantial bias is presented and it is shown how the methodology can be extended for theses cases in a simple manner in order to include potential mode shifts.
Pages: 1 - 19
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Zurich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 8th STRC Swiss Transport Research Conference
Event date: October 16, 2008
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-41284
, Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W., 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: A Framework of assessing vulnerability of transport infrastructure
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to assess link failure induced transportation related consequences including congestion related effects across a national network. The main challenge hereby considered is how to overcome the calculation time intensity of this equilibrium-based approach. Rather than employing the complete network for analyising a link failure, subnetworks are employed to model the spatially restricted demand shifts effects around a failed link. Each subnetwork is formulated by cutting a geographically defined selection of links and nodes out of the national network and including the internal and external demand traversing the subnetwork boundary. In an other paper describing the same piece of research it was shown that the failure consequences, even for links with long path distances or long detours, assessed with the subnetwork are very consistent with those considering the full network. This paper discusses the applicability, sensitivity and limitations of the approach are proved by Three selective case studies: It is demonstrated that the use of simplified networks, provided by current transport models, instead of high resolution networks has only minor impacts to accuracy. However, in some cases the consideration of subordinate network elements leads to more appropriate results and is therefore necessary. The paper presents a methodology how these cases can be detected and processed. Furthermore, an approach to detect links where the assumption of inelastic demand leads to substantial bias is presented and it is shown how the methodology can be extended for theses cases in a simple manner in order to include potential mode shifts.
Pages: 1 - 19
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Published
Event name: 8th STRC Swiss Transport Research Conference
Event date: October 15-17, 2008
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: PP-41319
, Erath, Alex, 2008 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex
Title: Netzwerkgestütze Prognose der Kosten von Streckenunterbrechungen
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: IVT Seminar
Event date: December 4, 2008
Place: Zurich, Switzerland
Language: German
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1306344166
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Bürgle, M., Axhausen, Kay W., Frejinger, E., Bierlaire M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi R., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Bürgle, M., Axhausen, Kay W., Frejinger, E., Bierlaire M., Rudel, R., Scagnolari, S., Maggi R.
Title: Einbezug der Reisekosten bei der Modellierung des Mobilitätsverhaltens
Subtitle: Final report for SVI 2005/004
Abstract: Das hier vorgeschlagene Projekt soll die Auswirkungen der Einführung von Mobility Pricing auf das Verhalten und die Entscheidungen der Verkehrsteilnehmer untersuchen. Zu erwarten sind kurzfristig Routenwahl-, Verkehrsmittelwahl- und Abfahrszeitveränderungen. Nicht erforscht sind jedoch längerfristige Effekte wie veränderte Zielwahl, veränderte Ausstattung Mobilitätswerkzeugen oder Wechsel von Wohn- und Arbeitsplatz. Doch auch die erwarteten kurzfristigen Effekte sind in ihren Ausmassen für die Schweiz noch nicht erfasst worden. Daher sollen in diesem Projekt neue Revealed Preference (RP) und Stated Preference (SP) Befragungen durchgeführt werden, die die Wirkung des Mobility Pricings im Kontext der anderen Kostenkomponenten bei Verkehrsentscheidungen ausloten. Die in der Befragung von den Verkehrsteilnehmern ermittelten Beurteilungen über die einzelnen Einflussfaktoren bzw. Angebotskomponenten ermöglichen es, die Zahlungsbereitschaft sowie andere Gesetzmässigkeiten und Nachfrageelastizitäten abzuleiten. Das Projekt wird gemeinsam vom IVT (ETH Zürich), ROSO (EPF Lausanne) und dem IRE (USI Lugano) unter Federführung des IVT durchgeführt werden. Die folgenden Arbeitspakete sind vorgesehen: Problemanalyse, Entwicklung der RP-Elemente, Entwurf der SP-Befragungen, Durchführung der SP-Befragungen, Modellierung der taktischen und strategischen SP – Experimente, RP mIV-Routenwahlmodelle, Schätzung der generalisierten Kostenelastizitäten (RP), Empfehlungen und Erstellung des Endberichts. The project proposed here aims to analyse the impacts of introducing mobility pricing on the behaviour and the decisions of passengers. Short term changes are expected for route, mode and departure time choices. Till now there has been no investigation about the long term impacts as changed destination choice, different equipment with mobility tools or shifting of residence and job locations. However, also for the short term effects a detailed appraisal for Switzerland has not yet been carried out. Therefore a series of revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) surveys should be held, which fathom the impacts of mobility pricing in the context with other cost components in transport choice situations. The personal ratings of the passengers about the specific influencing factors and the supply components will allow for a derivation of the willingness to pay as well as of other rules and demand elasticities. The project will be jointly executed by the IVT (ETH Zurich), ROSO (EPF Lausanne) and IRE (USI Lugano) under the leadership of the IVT. The following work packages are designated: Problem analysis, development of the RP elements, composition of the SP survey, realisation of the SP survey, RP private transport route choice models, estimation of the generalised cost elasticities (RP), recommendations and composition of the final report.
Published in: Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation UVEK, Bundesamt für Strassen
Volume: 1191
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Bern
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Zahlungsbereitschaft, Road Pricing, Mobility Pricing, Stated Preference, Routen- und Verkehrsmittelwahl, Standortwahl, Mobilitätswerkzeuge
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Zahlungsbereitschaft, Road Pricing, Mobility Pricing, Stated Preference, Routen- und Verkehrsmittelwahl, Standortwahl, Mobilitätswerkzeuge
DBID source: PP-41297
Nebis system number: 005567857
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: The Impacts of Mobility Pricing on Route and Mode Choice Behaviour
Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of an extensive stated preference (SP) survey, conducted in Switzerland in order to obtain detailed information for the evaluation of mobility pricing schemes. Four different SP experiments were included: one about the political acceptability of mobility pricing and the other three about route, mode and departure time choice behavior in the presence of mobility pricing. The questionnaires of 1005 respondents were used in a multinomial logit analysis of the latter three experiments. The values of travel time savings (VTTS) depended nonlinearly on the individual's income, travel time and overall travel costs. The respondents' evaluation of the cost components of fuel, tolls and parking differed significantly. Shifts in departure time depended on the choice situation were negatively valued. Furthermore, the importance of political preferences, as measured in the SP survey on acceptability, could be demonstrated, as the inclusion improved the model fit significantly as well as the reliability of the results.
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Berkeley, CA
Publication status: Published
Event name: 11th World Conference on Transport Research 2007
Event date: June 24-28, 2007
Place: Berkeley, California, USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-33306
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Route, mode and departure time choice behaviour in the presence of mobility pricing
Abstract: This paper summarises the results of an extensive stated preference (SP) survey, conducted in Switzerland in order to obtain detailed information for the evaluation of mobility pricing schemes. Four different SP experiments were included: one about the political acceptability of mobility pricing and the other three about route, mode and departure time choice behaviour in the presence of mobility pricing. The questionnaires of 1005 respondents were used in a multinomial logit analysis of the latter three experiments. The values of travel time savings (VTTS) depended nonlinearly on the individual's income, travel time and overall travel costs. The respondents' evaluation of the cost components of fuel, tolls and parking differed significantly. Shifts in departure time depended on the choice situation were negatively valued. Furthermore, the importance of political preferences, as measured in the SP survey on acceptability, could be demonstrated, as the inclusion improved the model fit significantly as well as the reliability of the results.2
Published in: Arbeitsbericht Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 446
Pages: 1 - 25
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: PP-33348
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005562858
Nebis system number: 005562858
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Route, mode and departure time choice behaviour in the presence of mobility pricing
Abstract: For the study described in this paper, an extensive, self-administered, stated preference (SP) survey was conducted in Switzerland with the purpose of providing the Swiss government with detailed information for the evaluation of mobility pricing schemes. Four different SP experiments were included: one about the political acceptability of mobility pricing and the other three about route, mode and departure time choice behaviour in the presence of mobility pricing. The questionnaires of 1005 respondents were used in a multinomial logit analysis of the latter three experiments. The results emphasise traveller's nonlinear valuing of cost and time characteristics. The values of travel time savings (VTTS) depended on the individual's income, travel time and overall travel costs. The respondents' evaluation of the cost components of fuel, tolls and parking differed significantly. The evaluation of shifts in departure time depended on the choice situation. In general, all shifts were penalised. However, for the case of non-toll routes, Swiss traveller take account of the congestion and prefer to depart early to make sure that they arrive on time. Furthermore, the importance of political preferences, as measured in the SP survey on acceptability, could be demonstrated. The inclusion of a variable derived from these SP findings improved the model fit significantly as well as the reliability of the results.
Pages: 1 - 18
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Event name: 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 21–25, 2007
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: PP-30939
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Design elements of road pricing schemes and their acceptability
Abstract: One key factor for the successful introduction of a road pricing scheme is its electoral acceptability, which is in turn strongly affected by its design. This is even more true in Switzerland, where any major policy change has to be approved by a majority of the voters in a referendum. An extensive stated preference (SP) survey about the acceptability of different design elements was included in a study about the impact of possible transport pricing schemes on passengers' travel behavior conducted on behalf of the Swiss federal government. The results of the acceptability survey are presented in this paper. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of various scheme elements on acceptability. The proposed charging level is the most important factor. Distance-based motorway tolls and km-dependent tolls for all roads are the preferred pricing types, in contrast to area licensing and time-dependent tolls. In connection with the discussion on the use of the revenues, replacing the existing pricing mechanisms, the fuel tax and motorway vignette, was the least liked option even though it would lower costs for the individual. However, the most favored alternative is investment in public transport, followed by reductions in income tax and a bonus-malus system that redistributes the revenues directly back to the Swiss population.2
Published in: Arbeitsbericht Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 447
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehrsplanung, Strassen- und Eisenbahnbau|Traffic, Highway and Railroad Engineering
Event name: Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting
Event date: January 21-25, 2007
Place: Washington DC, USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-33303, PP-33307, PP-30942
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005562875
Nebis system number: 005562875
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Design elements of road pricing schemes and their acceptability
Book title: TRB 86th Annual Meeting
Pages: 07-1548
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Washington, D.C.
Publication status: Published
Event name: 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 21-25, 2007
Place: Washington, D.C., USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1288785073, PP-31331
, Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alex, Meister, Konrad, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Vrtic, Milenko, Schüssler, Nadine, Erath, Alex, Meister, Konrad, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Tageszeitliche Fahrtenmatrizen im Personenverkehr an Werktagen im Jahr 2000
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: PP-33346
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005563041
Nebis system number: 005563041
, Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Hess, Stephane, Erath, Alexander, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Reducing bias in value of time estimates by joint estimation on multiple datasets
Subtitle: A case study in Switzerland
Abstract: Reliable measures of the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) are a crucial input into policy planning in any regional or national context. However, the evidence from secondary or parallel VTTS studies often differs from those of official or national studies. In this paper, we present evidence from a study aimed at merging evidence from four separate VTTS studies conducted in Switzerland. The analysis shows the potential of models estimated jointly on the combined data, and produces very stable results that should be more representative of the overall population.
Book title: European Transport Conference 2007 : proceedings
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: London
Publication status: Published
Event name: European Transport Conference 2007
Event date: October 17-19, 2007
Place: Leiden, Netherlands
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-33245
, Erath, Alexander, Frank, Niels, Lademann, Rainer, Axhausen, Kay W., 2007 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander, Frank, Niels, Lademann, Rainer, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: The impact of travel time savings on shopping location choice or how far do people go to shop cheaply?
Abstract: The determinants of store choice have always been a key topic in the marketing and especially retailing literature. It is clear that not only the consumer's perception of directly store related criteria like pricing, quality or market positioning strategy but also the store location itself affects store choice substantially. Different studies demonstrated this in the past but were not focussing on the implied willingness to pay for travel time reductions on the way to the store.

In this work two independent shopping location choice stated preference surveys are brought together to estimate a joint shopping location choice model. One was conducted in 2004, the year of the market entry (2004) of the German discounters Aldi and Lidl in Switzerland, for which customers were interviewed in the tri-national Basle region in three supermarkets, one in Switzerland, Germany and France each. The other survey was conducted in Göttingen, Germany 2006. Both surveys focus on the weekly food shopping trip which is very common in both countries and are composed of two parts: In the first part people were asked about their shopping behaviour in general. In the German case, the stated preference questionnaire was handed and filled out directly in the store. In the Swiss case the respondents filled it out at home and returned by mail.

Overall 2447 (1608 in Göttingen, 839 in the region of Basle) decisions were obtained and are the basis for the estimations. The descriptive analysis of the data shows large differences in the valuation of the different variables trough the respondents, especially concerning distance and price. Therefore the model includes socio-demographic variables in non-linear functions as well as different interaction terms. Focussing on the willingness to pay for travel time reductions, the impact of income, distance and other variables are examined and identified.

As these values diverge strongly between the different study regions and persons a qualitative assessment of the difference leads to the recommendation of possible improvements in modeling using different kinds of market segmentations like latent class models. Furthermore the hypothesis of Louviere et al. (2001) of preference homogeneity between countries cannot be confirmed.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 445
Pages: 1 - 18
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Raumordnung, Städtebau, Landschaftsarchitektur|Spatial and Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture
Event name: 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science
Event date: June 29 - July 1, 2007
Place: San Francisco, CA, USA
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: PP-33318, FORM-1306423643
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Erath, Alex, 2007 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alex
Title: Der Einfluss von Mobility Pricing auf den Besitz von Mobilitätswerkezugen und die Wohnstandortwahl
Book title: Jahrbuch 2007 Schweizerische Verkehrswirtschaft
Published in: Jahrbuch ... Schweizerische Verkehrswirtschaft
Pages: 43 - 72
ISSN: 1423-4459
Publication date / Date received: 2007-01-01
Publication status: St. Gallen
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: PP-33310
Nebis system number: 000978592
, Weidmann, U., Buchmueller, Stefan, Rieder, Markus, Erath, Alexander, Nash, Andrew, Carrel, André, 2006 >>
Author(s): Weidmann, U., Buchmueller, Stefan, Rieder, Markus, Erath, Alexander, Nash, Andrew, Carrel, André
Title: Europäische Marktstudie für das System Swissmetro
Subtitle: Phase I; Schlussbericht
Published in: Schriftenreihe Institut für Verkehrsplanung und Transportsysteme
Volume: 134
Publication date / Date received: 2006-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1288262392, PP-31303, PP-25850
Nebis system number: 005296272
, Erath, Alexander, 2006 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Value of travel time savings for shopping trips in Switzerland
Abstract: The Swiss study of the value of travel time savings (VTTS), conducted by König, Axhausen und Abay (2004) reported unexpectedly high values for shopping trips from early experimental stated preference experiments, which were finally not included in the main study. Therefore a study focusing only shopping travel was conducted to see, if these results could be replicated. This study estimates VTTS for shopping trips which are significantly higher than those in other studies. Values between 53 and 110 CHF/h are observed depending on the preferred supermarket. The effect of the preference for shopping in low price supermarkets on the VTTS is much stronger than income or the travel distance. In contradiction to the findings of the study by Koenig et al. the value of travel time savings decreases with longer distances. Further work which considers the travel and shopping expenditures separately besides shopping location preferences could probably give an even better understanding of VTTS of shopping travel.2
Published in: Working paper / IVT
Volume: 395
Publication date / Date received: 2006-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Value of travel time savings, Shopping trips, Discrete Choice Modelling, Swiss Transport Research Conference, STRC 2006, IVT, ETH Zürich
Event name: 6th Swiss Transport Research Conference
Event date: March 15-17, 2006
Place: Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Value of travel time savings, Shopping trips, Discrete Choice Modelling, Swiss Transport Research Conference, STRC 2006, IVT, ETH Zürich
DBID source: FORM-1316269247, PP-31301
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005282924
Nebis system number: 005282924
, Erath, Alexander, 2006 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Rolle von Zeit im Verkehr
Subtitle: Der Fall Personenverkehr
Publication date / Date received: 2006-01-01
Event name: Forum des Schweizer Verkehrs, SVWG
Event date: October 2006
Place: Bern, Switzerland
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1306425048, PP-31302
, Erath, Alexander, 2005 >>
Author(s): Erath, Alexander
Title: Zeitkosten im Einkaufsverkehr
Abstract: Die vorliegende Arbeit ermittelt Zeitwerte für den Wocheneinkauf in der Schweiz. Die Befra- gung wurde an einem Ort in der Schweiz und zwei Orten im grenznahen Ausland durchgeführt. Die Basis der Analyse sind mit Stated Preference Methoden erhobene Daten zum Einkaufsver- halten. Kern der Analyse und Werkzeug zur Ermittlung der Zeitwerte bildet eine Serie diskreter Entscheidungsmodelle. Die empfohlene Modellformulierung umfasst einkommens- und dis- tanzabhängige Elastizitätsparameter, sowie Dummy-Variablen für den bevorzugten Ladentyp. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass die auf Basis eines Zielwahlexperiments geschätzten Zeitwerte zum Einkaufsverkehr deutlich höher sind, als Werte aus bisherigen Studien zum Pendler- oder Geschäftsreiseverkehr. Je nach Präferenz des Ladengeschäfts ergeben sich Zeitwerte von rund 60 CHF/h respektive 110 CHF/h.2
Publication date / Date received: 2005-02-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Zeitwerte, Befragung, Grenzüberschreitender Einkaufsverkehr, Entscheidungsmodell, ETH Zürich, Institut für Verkehrplanung und Transportsysteme (IVT)
Language: German
Keyword: Zeitwerte, Befragung, Grenzüberschreitender Einkaufsverkehr, Entscheidungsmodell, ETH Zürich, Institut für Verkehrplanung und Transportsysteme (IVT)
DBID source: FORM-1322069344
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005226869
Nebis system number: 005226869

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