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, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: System dynamics of urban traffic based on its parking-related-states
Kurzbeschreibung: The urban parking and the urban traffic systems are essential components of the overall urban transportation structure. The short-term interactions between these two systems can be highly significant and influential to their individual performance. The urban parking system, for example, can affect the searching-for-parking traffic, influencing not only overall travel speeds in the network (traffic performance), but also total driven distance (environmental conditions). In turn, the traffic performance can also affect the time drivers spend searching for parking, and ultimately, parking usage. In this study, we propose a methodology to model macroscopically such interactions and evaluate their effects on urban congestion.

The model is built on a matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

The model is built on a matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

A simple numerical example is provided to show possible applications of this type. Parking policies such as increasing parking supply or shortening the maximum parking duration allowed (i.e., time controls) are tested, and their effects on traffic are estimated. The preliminary results show that time control policies can alleviate the parking-caused traffic issues without the need for providing additional parking facilities. Results also show that parking policies that intend to reduce traffic delay may, at the same time, increase the driven distance and cause negative externalities. Hence, caution must be exercised and multiple traffic metrics should be evaluated before selecting these policies.

Overall, this paper shows how the system dynamics of urban traffic, based on its parking-related-states, can be used to efficiently evaluate the urban traffic and parking systems macroscopically. The proposed model can be used to estimate both, how parking availability can affect traffic performance (e.g., average time searching for parking, number of cars searching for parking); and how different traffic conditions (e.g., travel speed, density in the system) can affect drivers ability to find parking. Moreover, the proposed model can be used to study multiple strategies or scenarios for traffic operations and control, transportation planning, land use planning, or parking management and operations.2
Publiziert in: Transportation Research Part B, Methodological
Band: 81
Ausgabe: 3
Seiten: 718 - 736
ISSN: 0191-2615, 1879-2367
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-11-01
Publikations-Status: Amsterdam
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, System dynamics of urban traffic
Eventname: 21st International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory (ISTTT 21)
Eventdatum: August 5-7, 2015
Ort: Kobe, Japan
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, System dynamics of urban traffic
DBID Quelle: FORM-1437811524, SCOPUS-84947494851, WOS-000366237900006
DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.07.018
Nebis System Nummer: 000006554
, Jakob, Manuel, Menendez, Monica, Cao, Jin, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Jakob, Manuel, Menendez, Monica, Cao, Jin
Titel: A dynamic macroscopic parking pricing model
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publiziert in: SVT Working Paper
Band: 105
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Unpublished
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1444373883
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, Nikias, Vasileios, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, Nikias, Vasileios
Titel: The effects of on-street parking on the service rate of nearby intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicl es. If the maneuver occurs near a signalized intersection, the service rate of the intersection might be reduced. In this paper, a model is built to analyze the effects of parking maneuvers on the intersection service rate. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traf?c ?ow, the perturbation caused by the parking mane uver is analyzed. Using dimension al analysis, we illustrate the relation between the background conditions, the distance from the parking area to the intersection, and the intersection service rate. Based on this relation, one can compute the service rate reduction caused by existing on-street parking areas. A minimum distance between the parking are a and the intersection to avoid such reduction can be accordingly found. Numerical examples based on empirical data from the city of Zurich, Switzerland, are provided to illustrate the practical applications. Although the analysis is based on streets with a single lane per direction, the ?ndings can provide some insights regarding different situations. We hope such ?ndings can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking design guideline s.2
Publiziert in: Journal of Advanced Transportation
ISSN: 0197-6729, 2042-3195
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Durham, NC
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1395922787
DOI: 10.1002/atr.1329
Nebis System Nummer: 000006890
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Washington, DC
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, TRB2015
Eventdatum: January 11-15, 2015
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1423241415
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicles. When the maneuver occurs at a close distance upstream a signalized intersection, the scope of the impact can be magnified. In this case, the intersection might be starved for traffic due to the parking maneuver, so a portion of the intersection capacity is wasted. In this paper, we estimate the service rate reduction due to the delay caused by an upstream parking maneuver at different locations and provide suggestions to avoid such reduction. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traffic flow, the perturbation caused by the parking maneuver is calculated. Using dimensional analysis, we analyze the relation between the background conditions (i.e, traffic volume, traffic saturation condition, signal control settings, etc.), the time/location of the parking maneuver, and the service rate reduction at the intersection. Combined with a previous study, the analysis on the effects of parking maneuvers at different locations nearby a signalized intersection is now complete (both upstream and downstream parking maneuvers are included). The results show that, generally, for an undersaturated intersection, parking downstream of the intersection causes less negative effects on service rate than parking upstream. However, for an oversaturated intersection, parking at a close distance downstream of the intersection might reduce the service rate significantly. We hope the conclusions can be used to guide parking planning/management under different background conditions and to assist the development of parking regulations (such as dynamic parking supply according to real-time traffic conditions).2
Seiten: 15-1557
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Washington, DC
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, TRB2015
Eventdatum: January 11-15, 2015
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1423240468
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Cruising for parking: causes, effects, and control strategies
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publiziert in: SVT Working Papers
Band: 103
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1437811881
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Analysis on parking policies considering the effects of searching-for-parking on the general traffic performance
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Ascona
Publikations-Status: Unpublished
Eventname: 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2015)
Eventdatum: 15-17 April 2015
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1432370620
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: A parking-state-based transition matrix of traffic on urban networks
Kurzbeschreibung: The urban parking and the urban traffic systems are essential components of the overall urban transportation structure. The short- term interactions between these two systems can be highly significant and influential to their individual performance. The urban parking system, for example, can affect the searching-for-parking traffic, influencing not only overall travel speeds in the network (traffic performance), but also total driven distance (environmental conditions). In turn, the traffic performance can also affect the time drivers spend searching for parking, and ultimately, parking usage. In this study, we propose a methodology to model macroscopically such interactions and evaluate their effects on urban congestion.

The model is built on a transition matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

A simple numerical example is provided to show possible applications of this type. Parking policies such as increasing parking supply or shortening the maximum parking duration allowed (i.e., time controls) are tested, and their effects on traffic are estimated. The preliminary results show that time control policies can alleviate the parking-caused traffic issues without the need for providing additional parking facilities. Results also show that parking policies that intend to reduce traffic delay may, at the same time, increase the driven distance and cause negative externalities. Hence, caution must be exercised and multiple traffic metrics should be evaluated before selecting these policies.

Overall, this paper shows how a parking-state-based transition matrix, despite its simplicity, can be used to efficiently evaluate the urban traffic and parking systems macroscopically. The proposed model can be used to estimate both, how parking availability can affect traffic performance (e.g., average time searching for parking, number of cars searching for parking); and how different traffic conditions (e.g., travel speed, density in the system) can affect drivers ability to find parking. Moreover, the proposed model can be used to study multiple strategies or scenarios for traffic operations and control, transportation planning, land use planning, or parking management and operations.2
Publiziert in: Transportation Research Procedia
Band: 7
Seiten: 149 - 169
ISSN: 2352-1465
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2015-01-01
Publikations-Status: Amsterdam
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, Transition matrix of traffic
Eventname: 21st International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory
Eventdatum: August 5-7, 2015
Ort: Kobe, Japan
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, Transition matrix of traffic
DBID Quelle: FORM-1423936712
DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2015.06.009
Nebis System Nummer: 010514383
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: On-street parking and its effects on nearby intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Unpublished
Eventname: IVT Seminar
Eventdatum: July 2014
Ort: Zürich, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1409234134
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Macroscopic modelling of parking dynamics in urban networks (Part I)
Kurzbeschreibung: Parking can have a significant impact on transportation systems. Besides the effects on travel demand, the regulation and usage of urban parking can also directly influence traffic performance. The availability of parking and the demand to park, at any given time, influence the trip completion rate, and correspondingly the traffic conditions in the area. In our research, we define several vehicle groups, according to their status concerning parking. For example, vehicles in an area can be grouped into "driving", "searching" and "staying (i.e., parking)". To find the quantity of cars in each vehicle group at a future time, we divide the time period into a number of thin time slices, in which the conditions are assumed to be static. Using probability theory, kinematic flow theory and dimensional analysis, a transition matrix can be developed. Based on that, the quantity of cars driving, parking or searching for parking can be updated over time. Therefore, the model enables us to define, simulate, and quantify the dynamics of the parking process. Furthermore, we are able to estimate different traffic parameters / indicators. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the relationship between urban parking and traffic performance in urban networks. The current study (this paper) is a preliminary part of the research, it quantifies the number of cars that access parking in a time slice analytically (i.e, the number of cars that leave the "searching" group, and join the "staying" group). Numerical examples are given, a program is provided to test the results as well.2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Ascona
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Urban Parking, Transition Matrix, Traffic
Eventname: 14th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2014)
Eventdatum: May 14-16, 2014
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Urban Parking, Transition Matrix, Traffic
DBID Quelle: FORM-1400078366
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Macroscopic modelling of parking dynamics in urban networks
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 14th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2014)
Eventdatum: May 14-16, 2014
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1400667305
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Publiziert in: SVT Working Paper
Band: 73
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1408888281
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Effect of On-street Parking on Traffic Throughput at Nearby Intersections
Kurzbeschreibung: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicles. In most cases, the number of vehicles delayed due to a parking maneuver is limited. However, if the maneuver occurs close to a signalized intersection, the delay may linger over multiple cycles, resulting in a degraded performance of the traffic and the intersection. In this paper, we try to define a minimum distance from the parking area to the intersection to avoid such delay. As the throughput reduction at the intersection is highly linked to the lingering delay, it is used as a key indicator of the traffic performance. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traffic flow, the perturbation caused by the parking maneuver is analyzed. Using dimensional analysis, we illustrated the relation between the background conditions (i.e., traffic demand, signal control settings, duration of the parking maneuver), the distance from the parking area to the intersection, and the throughput reduction at the intersection. Based on this relation, one can find a minimum distance to avoid lingering delay (throughput reduction) when designing the parking area, or, to compute the throughput reduction which is caused by existing on-street parking areas. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the practical applications. We hope the findings can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking design guidelines.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB 2014)
Eventdatum: January 12-16, 2014
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1393333448
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: A Parking-State-Based Transition Matrix of Traffic on Urban Networks
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publiziert in: SVT Working Paper
Band: 77
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2014-01-01
Publikations-Status: Zürich
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1410376914
, Cao, Jin, Vasileios, Nikias, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Vasileios, Nikias, Menendez, Monica
Titel: On-street parking near intersections
Untertitel: Effects on traffic
Kurzbeschreibung: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by following vehicles. In most cases, the number of vehicles delayed due to a parking maneuver is limited. However, if the maneuver occurs close to a signalized intersection, it may result in a capacity loss at the intersection and the delay could linger over multiple cycles. In this paper, we try to define a minimum distance from the parking area to the intersection to avoid loss of capacity and enhance traffic performance. Using dimensional analysis, the effect of duration of parking maneuver, traffic flow condition, and the distance from parking area to intersection on the capacity loss at intersections is illustrated. The final results will hold for a broad range of cases, and can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking area design guidelines.
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Eventdatum: April 24-26, 2013
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1367318124
, Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica
Titel: On-street parking near the intersections
Untertitel: Effects on traffic
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 2nd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART 2013)
Eventdatum: September 4-6, 2013
Ort: Stockholm, Sweden
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1380126068
, Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica
Titel: On-street parking near intersections
Untertitel: Effects on traffic
Kurzbeschreibung: 2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Eventdatum: April 24-26, 2013
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1367918323
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Methodology to evaluate cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Kurzbeschreibung: Patrol surveys are frequently used to estimate average parking duration. However, error in estimating is unavoidable and yet unpredictable. It is, therefore, hard for surveyors to decide on survey budgets; lower ones may generate unusable results and higher ones are costly. Therefore, a method to evaluate and improve survey accuracy without increasing (and possibly even lowering) cost could be highly beneficial. In this paper, an analytical model is built to determine the effects of survey budget on survey accuracy in a systematic and generalized way. The relationship between the survey budget, the estimated average parking duration (i.e., the survey result), and the survey error is illustrated through dimensional analysis. On the basis of this analysis, objective criteria are found to evaluate patrol surveys, a budget test is provided to find the optimal survey budget, and a correction method is proposed to improve survey accuracy. Moreover, simulations are run on the basis of more realistic assumptions, so that the conclusions from the analytical model can be extended to real life situations. The model is well validated with real parking data. An example application is also provided that illustrates how to use the proposed approaches to choose a survey budget and to improve survey accuracy. It is hoped that this study will help surveyors to better understand patrol surveys and obtain high-quality results, while keeping costs to a minimum.2
Publiziert in: Transportation research record : journal of the Transportation Research Board
Band: 2359
Seiten: 1 - 9
ISSN: 0361-1981
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Washington, DC
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Umweltproblematik allgemein|Environmental Problems, General
Eventname: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 13-17, 2013
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1348672172, SCOPUS-84886621102
DOI: 10.3141/2359-01
Nebis System Nummer: 000024408
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Methodology for evaluating cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2013-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Eventdatum: January 13-17, 2013
Ort: Washington, DC, USA
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1369312694
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Methodology for evaluating cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Publiziert in: Schriftenreihe
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventdatum: December, 2012
Ort: Zürich, Switzerland
DBID Quelle: FORM-1354289935
Nebis System Nummer: 005022139
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Accuracy study of parking duration data from patrol survey
Kurzbeschreibung: Patrol survey is a widely used method for data collection in parking studies, and one of its goals is to obtain the average parking duration for a parking area. However, the inaccuracy is unavoidable; one main reason is that short stay vehicles are often not observed. To reduce the error from the survey, short observation intervals can be chosen, but that can be very expensive. In this article, a generalized analytical model is built to analyse this error, several suggestions are made to guarantee the accuracy, and to coordinate it with the survey costs. Through dimensional analysis, the relation between time length of observation interval, estimated parking duration, and survey accuracy is illustrated. In the numerical example, a correction for the value of average duration is introduced to increase the accuracy. We further used simulation-based examples to extend the model and the conclusions to more generalized situations. The final result shows that with this approach, the accuracy of the survey could be estimated and enhanced. It helps the surveyors in choosing a proper length for the survey interval, so one could obtain high quality results from the patrol survey while keeping costs to a minimum.2
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Einordnungen: Average parking duration, Parking behavior, Patrol survey, Data collection–, Parking duration accuracy
Eventname: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Eventdatum: May 2-4, 2012
Ort: Monte Verità, Ascona
Sprache: English
Schlüsselwort: Average parking duration, Parking behavior, Patrol survey, Data collection–, Parking duration accuracy
DBID Quelle: FORM-1338373510, FORM-1348670775, FORM-1348670775
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Autor(en): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Titel: Accuracy Study of Parking Duration Data from Patrol Survey
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2012-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Eventname: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Eventdatum: May 2-4, 2012
Ort: Ascona, Switzerland
Sprache: English
DBID Quelle: FORM-1352443527
, Liu, Zi-Chang, Zhang, Xiao-Ning, Cao, Jin, 2011 >>
Autor(en): Liu, Zi-Chang, Zhang, Xiao-Ning, Cao, Jin
Titel: Parking fee management with capacity constrained park lots
Kurzbeschreibung: A new method of parking fee management is proposed under the condition of capacity constrained parking lots,the capacities of all parking lots are fully used by charging differentiated parking fees,meanwhile excessive trips via private cars are avoided to prevent illegal parking.In accordance with the values of time (VOT) of individual travelers,the decision of mode and parking lot choices for different travelers is investigated.The super network with capacity constrained parking lots is established,and the parking fee scheme that assures the maximal use of parking lots is proposed.In this paper,it is assumed that traveler's value of time follows continuous distribution,based on which the function of generalized travel cost with respect to VOT is obtained under the network equilibrium condition,thus an algorithm of determining optimal parking fees is proposed.A numerical example is illustrated and it is shown that the method is effective.2
Publiziert in: Journal of University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
Band: 3
Ausgabe: 3
Seiten: 303 - 306
Publikationsdatum / Empfangsdatum: 2011-01-01
Publikations-Status: Published
Sprache: Chinese
DBID Quelle: FORM-1425650870

 

 

 

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