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, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: System dynamics of urban traffic based on its parking-related-states
Abstract: The urban parking and the urban traffic systems are essential components of the overall urban transportation structure. The short-term interactions between these two systems can be highly significant and influential to their individual performance. The urban parking system, for example, can affect the searching-for-parking traffic, influencing not only overall travel speeds in the network (traffic performance), but also total driven distance (environmental conditions). In turn, the traffic performance can also affect the time drivers spend searching for parking, and ultimately, parking usage. In this study, we propose a methodology to model macroscopically such interactions and evaluate their effects on urban congestion.

The model is built on a matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

The model is built on a matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

A simple numerical example is provided to show possible applications of this type. Parking policies such as increasing parking supply or shortening the maximum parking duration allowed (i.e., time controls) are tested, and their effects on traffic are estimated. The preliminary results show that time control policies can alleviate the parking-caused traffic issues without the need for providing additional parking facilities. Results also show that parking policies that intend to reduce traffic delay may, at the same time, increase the driven distance and cause negative externalities. Hence, caution must be exercised and multiple traffic metrics should be evaluated before selecting these policies.

Overall, this paper shows how the system dynamics of urban traffic, based on its parking-related-states, can be used to efficiently evaluate the urban traffic and parking systems macroscopically. The proposed model can be used to estimate both, how parking availability can affect traffic performance (e.g., average time searching for parking, number of cars searching for parking); and how different traffic conditions (e.g., travel speed, density in the system) can affect drivers ability to find parking. Moreover, the proposed model can be used to study multiple strategies or scenarios for traffic operations and control, transportation planning, land use planning, or parking management and operations.2
Published in: Transportation Research Part B, Methodological
Volume: 81
Issue: 3
Pages: 718 - 736
ISSN: 0191-2615, 1879-2367
Publication date / Date received: 2015-11-01
Publication status: Amsterdam
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Verkehr und Transport|Traffic and Transportation, Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, System dynamics of urban traffic
Event name: 21st International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory (ISTTT 21)
Event date: August 5-7, 2015
Place: Kobe, Japan
Language: English
Keyword: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, System dynamics of urban traffic
DBID source: FORM-1437811524, SCOPUS-84947494851, WOS-000366237900006
DOI: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.07.018
Nebis system number: 000006554
, Jakob, Manuel, Menendez, Monica, Cao, Jin, 2015 >>
Author(s): Jakob, Manuel, Menendez, Monica, Cao, Jin
Title: A dynamic macroscopic parking pricing model
Abstract: 2
Published in: SVT Working Paper
Volume: 105
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Unpublished
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1444373883
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, Nikias, Vasileios, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, Nikias, Vasileios
Title: The effects of on-street parking on the service rate of nearby intersections
Abstract: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicl es. If the maneuver occurs near a signalized intersection, the service rate of the intersection might be reduced. In this paper, a model is built to analyze the effects of parking maneuvers on the intersection service rate. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traf?c ?ow, the perturbation caused by the parking mane uver is analyzed. Using dimension al analysis, we illustrate the relation between the background conditions, the distance from the parking area to the intersection, and the intersection service rate. Based on this relation, one can compute the service rate reduction caused by existing on-street parking areas. A minimum distance between the parking are a and the intersection to avoid such reduction can be accordingly found. Numerical examples based on empirical data from the city of Zurich, Switzerland, are provided to illustrate the practical applications. Although the analysis is based on streets with a single lane per direction, the ?ndings can provide some insights regarding different situations. We hope such ?ndings can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking design guideline s.2
Published in: Journal of Advanced Transportation
ISSN: 0197-6729, 2042-3195
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Durham, NC
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1395922787
DOI: 10.1002/atr.1329
Nebis system number: 000006890
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, TRB2015
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1423241415
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Abstract: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicles. When the maneuver occurs at a close distance upstream a signalized intersection, the scope of the impact can be magnified. In this case, the intersection might be starved for traffic due to the parking maneuver, so a portion of the intersection capacity is wasted. In this paper, we estimate the service rate reduction due to the delay caused by an upstream parking maneuver at different locations and provide suggestions to avoid such reduction. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traffic flow, the perturbation caused by the parking maneuver is calculated. Using dimensional analysis, we analyze the relation between the background conditions (i.e, traffic volume, traffic saturation condition, signal control settings, etc.), the time/location of the parking maneuver, and the service rate reduction at the intersection. Combined with a previous study, the analysis on the effects of parking maneuvers at different locations nearby a signalized intersection is now complete (both upstream and downstream parking maneuvers are included). The results show that, generally, for an undersaturated intersection, parking downstream of the intersection causes less negative effects on service rate than parking upstream. However, for an oversaturated intersection, parking at a close distance downstream of the intersection might reduce the service rate significantly. We hope the conclusions can be used to guide parking planning/management under different background conditions and to assist the development of parking regulations (such as dynamic parking supply according to real-time traffic conditions).2
Pages: 15-1557
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, TRB2015
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1423240468
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Cruising for parking: causes, effects, and control strategies
Abstract: 2
Published in: SVT Working Papers
Volume: 103
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1437811881
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Analysis on parking policies considering the effects of searching-for-parking on the general traffic performance
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2015)
Event date: 15-17 April 2015
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1432370620
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2015 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: A parking-state-based transition matrix of traffic on urban networks
Abstract: The urban parking and the urban traffic systems are essential components of the overall urban transportation structure. The short- term interactions between these two systems can be highly significant and influential to their individual performance. The urban parking system, for example, can affect the searching-for-parking traffic, influencing not only overall travel speeds in the network (traffic performance), but also total driven distance (environmental conditions). In turn, the traffic performance can also affect the time drivers spend searching for parking, and ultimately, parking usage. In this study, we propose a methodology to model macroscopically such interactions and evaluate their effects on urban congestion.

The model is built on a transition matrix describing how, over time, vehicles in an urban area transition from one parking-related state to another. With this model it is possible to estimate, based on the traffic and parking demand as well as the parking supply, the amount of vehicles searching for parking, the amount of vehicles driving on the network but not searching for parking, and the amount of vehicles parked at any given time. More importantly, it is also possible to estimate the total (or average) time spent and distance driven within each of these states. Based on that, the model can be used to design and evaluate different parking policies, to improve (or optimize) the performance of both systems.

A simple numerical example is provided to show possible applications of this type. Parking policies such as increasing parking supply or shortening the maximum parking duration allowed (i.e., time controls) are tested, and their effects on traffic are estimated. The preliminary results show that time control policies can alleviate the parking-caused traffic issues without the need for providing additional parking facilities. Results also show that parking policies that intend to reduce traffic delay may, at the same time, increase the driven distance and cause negative externalities. Hence, caution must be exercised and multiple traffic metrics should be evaluated before selecting these policies.

Overall, this paper shows how a parking-state-based transition matrix, despite its simplicity, can be used to efficiently evaluate the urban traffic and parking systems macroscopically. The proposed model can be used to estimate both, how parking availability can affect traffic performance (e.g., average time searching for parking, number of cars searching for parking); and how different traffic conditions (e.g., travel speed, density in the system) can affect drivers ability to find parking. Moreover, the proposed model can be used to study multiple strategies or scenarios for traffic operations and control, transportation planning, land use planning, or parking management and operations.2
Published in: Transportation Research Procedia
Volume: 7
Pages: 149 - 169
ISSN: 2352-1465
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Amsterdam
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, Transition matrix of traffic
Event name: 21st International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory
Event date: August 5-7, 2015
Place: Kobe, Japan
Language: English
Keyword: Macroscopic parking model, Traffic congestion, Parking-related traffic state, Cruising-for-parking, Transition matrix of traffic
DBID source: FORM-1423936712
DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2015.06.009
Nebis system number: 010514383
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: On-street parking and its effects on nearby intersections
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: IVT Seminar
Event date: July 2014
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1409234134
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Macroscopic modelling of parking dynamics in urban networks (Part I)
Abstract: Parking can have a significant impact on transportation systems. Besides the effects on travel demand, the regulation and usage of urban parking can also directly influence traffic performance. The availability of parking and the demand to park, at any given time, influence the trip completion rate, and correspondingly the traffic conditions in the area. In our research, we define several vehicle groups, according to their status concerning parking. For example, vehicles in an area can be grouped into "driving", "searching" and "staying (i.e., parking)". To find the quantity of cars in each vehicle group at a future time, we divide the time period into a number of thin time slices, in which the conditions are assumed to be static. Using probability theory, kinematic flow theory and dimensional analysis, a transition matrix can be developed. Based on that, the quantity of cars driving, parking or searching for parking can be updated over time. Therefore, the model enables us to define, simulate, and quantify the dynamics of the parking process. Furthermore, we are able to estimate different traffic parameters / indicators. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the relationship between urban parking and traffic performance in urban networks. The current study (this paper) is a preliminary part of the research, it quantifies the number of cars that access parking in a time slice analytically (i.e, the number of cars that leave the "searching" group, and join the "staying" group). Numerical examples are given, a program is provided to test the results as well.2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Urban Parking, Transition Matrix, Traffic
Event name: 14th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2014)
Event date: May 14-16, 2014
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Urban Parking, Transition Matrix, Traffic
DBID source: FORM-1400078366
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Macroscopic modelling of parking dynamics in urban networks
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 14th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2014)
Event date: May 14-16, 2014
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1400667305
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Generalized effects of on-street parking maneuvers on the performance of nearby signalized intersections
Published in: SVT Working Paper
Volume: 73
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1408888281
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Effect of On-street Parking on Traffic Throughput at Nearby Intersections
Abstract: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by the following vehicles. In most cases, the number of vehicles delayed due to a parking maneuver is limited. However, if the maneuver occurs close to a signalized intersection, the delay may linger over multiple cycles, resulting in a degraded performance of the traffic and the intersection. In this paper, we try to define a minimum distance from the parking area to the intersection to avoid such delay. As the throughput reduction at the intersection is highly linked to the lingering delay, it is used as a key indicator of the traffic performance. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of traffic flow, the perturbation caused by the parking maneuver is analyzed. Using dimensional analysis, we illustrated the relation between the background conditions (i.e., traffic demand, signal control settings, duration of the parking maneuver), the distance from the parking area to the intersection, and the throughput reduction at the intersection. Based on this relation, one can find a minimum distance to avoid lingering delay (throughput reduction) when designing the parking area, or, to compute the throughput reduction which is caused by existing on-street parking areas. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the practical applications. We hope the findings can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking design guidelines.
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB 2014)
Event date: January 12-16, 2014
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1393333448
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2014 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: A Parking-State-Based Transition Matrix of Traffic on Urban Networks
Abstract: 2
Published in: SVT Working Paper
Volume: 77
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1410376914
, Cao, Jin, Vasileios, Nikias, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Vasileios, Nikias, Menendez, Monica
Title: On-street parking near intersections
Subtitle: Effects on traffic
Abstract: An on-street parking maneuver can often start a temporary bottleneck, leading to additional delay endured by following vehicles. In most cases, the number of vehicles delayed due to a parking maneuver is limited. However, if the maneuver occurs close to a signalized intersection, it may result in a capacity loss at the intersection and the delay could linger over multiple cycles. In this paper, we try to define a minimum distance from the parking area to the intersection to avoid loss of capacity and enhance traffic performance. Using dimensional analysis, the effect of duration of parking maneuver, traffic flow condition, and the distance from parking area to intersection on the capacity loss at intersections is illustrated. The final results will hold for a broad range of cases, and can be used as a basis for developing on-street parking area design guidelines.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1367318124
, Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica
Title: On-street parking near the intersections
Subtitle: Effects on traffic
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 2nd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART 2013)
Event date: September 4-6, 2013
Place: Stockholm, Sweden
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1380126068
, Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Nikias, Vasileios, Menendez, Monica
Title: On-street parking near intersections
Subtitle: Effects on traffic
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 13th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2013)
Event date: April 24-26, 2013
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1367918323
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Methodology to evaluate cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Abstract: Patrol surveys are frequently used to estimate average parking duration. However, error in estimating is unavoidable and yet unpredictable. It is, therefore, hard for surveyors to decide on survey budgets; lower ones may generate unusable results and higher ones are costly. Therefore, a method to evaluate and improve survey accuracy without increasing (and possibly even lowering) cost could be highly beneficial. In this paper, an analytical model is built to determine the effects of survey budget on survey accuracy in a systematic and generalized way. The relationship between the survey budget, the estimated average parking duration (i.e., the survey result), and the survey error is illustrated through dimensional analysis. On the basis of this analysis, objective criteria are found to evaluate patrol surveys, a budget test is provided to find the optimal survey budget, and a correction method is proposed to improve survey accuracy. Moreover, simulations are run on the basis of more realistic assumptions, so that the conclusions from the analytical model can be extended to real life situations. The model is well validated with real parking data. An example application is also provided that illustrates how to use the proposed approaches to choose a survey budget and to improve survey accuracy. It is hoped that this study will help surveyors to better understand patrol surveys and obtain high-quality results, while keeping costs to a minimum.2
Published in: Transportation research record : journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume: 2359
Pages: 1 - 9
ISSN: 0361-1981
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Washington, DC
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Umweltproblematik allgemein|Environmental Problems, General
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1348672172, SCOPUS-84886621102
DOI: 10.3141/2359-01
Nebis system number: 000024408
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2013 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Methodology for evaluating cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 13-17, 2013
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1369312694
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Methodology for evaluating cost and accuracy of parking patrol surveys
Published in: Schriftenreihe
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event date: December, 2012
Place: Zürich, Switzerland
DBID source: FORM-1354289935
Nebis system number: 005022139
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Accuracy study of parking duration data from patrol survey
Abstract: Patrol survey is a widely used method for data collection in parking studies, and one of its goals is to obtain the average parking duration for a parking area. However, the inaccuracy is unavoidable; one main reason is that short stay vehicles are often not observed. To reduce the error from the survey, short observation intervals can be chosen, but that can be very expensive. In this article, a generalized analytical model is built to analyse this error, several suggestions are made to guarantee the accuracy, and to coordinate it with the survey costs. Through dimensional analysis, the relation between time length of observation interval, estimated parking duration, and survey accuracy is illustrated. In the numerical example, a correction for the value of average duration is introduced to increase the accuracy. We further used simulation-based examples to extend the model and the conclusions to more generalized situations. The final result shows that with this approach, the accuracy of the survey could be estimated and enhanced. It helps the surveyors in choosing a proper length for the survey interval, so one could obtain high quality results from the patrol survey while keeping costs to a minimum.2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Average parking duration, Parking behavior, Patrol survey, Data collection–, Parking duration accuracy
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Monte Verità, Ascona
Language: English
Keyword: Average parking duration, Parking behavior, Patrol survey, Data collection–, Parking duration accuracy
DBID source: FORM-1338373510, FORM-1348670775, FORM-1348670775
, Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica, 2012 >>
Author(s): Cao, Jin, Menendez, Monica
Title: Accuracy Study of Parking Duration Data from Patrol Survey
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1352443527
, Liu, Zi-Chang, Zhang, Xiao-Ning, Cao, Jin, 2011 >>
Author(s): Liu, Zi-Chang, Zhang, Xiao-Ning, Cao, Jin
Title: Parking fee management with capacity constrained park lots
Abstract: A new method of parking fee management is proposed under the condition of capacity constrained parking lots,the capacities of all parking lots are fully used by charging differentiated parking fees,meanwhile excessive trips via private cars are avoided to prevent illegal parking.In accordance with the values of time (VOT) of individual travelers,the decision of mode and parking lot choices for different travelers is investigated.The super network with capacity constrained parking lots is established,and the parking fee scheme that assures the maximal use of parking lots is proposed.In this paper,it is assumed that traveler's value of time follows continuous distribution,based on which the function of generalized travel cost with respect to VOT is obtained under the network equilibrium condition,thus an algorithm of determining optimal parking fees is proposed.A numerical example is illustrated and it is shown that the method is effective.2
Published in: Journal of University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
Volume: 3
Issue: 3
Pages: 303 - 306
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Published
Language: Chinese
DBID source: FORM-1425650870

 

 

 

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