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, Killer, Veronika, 2014 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika
Title: Understanding spatial interaction in models of commuting behaviour
Abstract: This dissertation aims to understand the spatial and historical complexity of interaction patterns due to commuting and the change of functional regions – commuting regions. It contributes to the ongoing debate about more flexible regionalisation techniques, which allow detecting more complex spatial structures than a closed labour market. Spatial effects between the transport system and land use are investigated.

The spatial interaction is context-specific. At the municipal level, accessibilities are calculated for Germany and Switzerland. The historical accessibility combines the quality of the transport network and the attractiveness of locations. This interaction pattern describes the historical development in economically powerful regions or peripheries. This changes the perception of distance; stronger interaction lets cities move closer for example. Other historical analyses show the delineation of functional commuting regions with clear and fuzzy boundaries, which is a blurring of the interaction concept.

After the discussion of traditional methods of defining catchment areas, two techniques, the confidence ellipse and the clustering by social network algorithms, are used to visualize and measure overlaps of commuting regions. This analysis shows commuting regions in rural areas and a growth of commuting regions in the flatland of Switzerland. Two basic spatial structures of overlaps are described: "an area between with strong connection without direction" or "an area more at the edge with weak links." In addition, these structural changes are examined. An exploratory spatial model explains the influence of morphological, economic and demographic factors on size and existence of commuting regions. The commuter flows and the shape of commuting regions are controlled by municipal strategies and the individual decision of each employee. The last chapter changes the perspective from the municipal to personal one: the individual residential choice. It examines spatially different strategies of residential choice. However, the choice of a residence does not differ systematically between functional and spatial categorisations.

All chapters of this dissertation use spatial characteristics which go beyond the Euclidean distance, and altered perception of space. These spatial interaction characteristics are accessibility, access variables and functional region. The value und significance of these spatial characteristics in the modelling process is reflected. The availability of data, the geographic extent and the historical timeline characterizes this work. The model estimates are often ambiguous, which is related to the problem of the strong correlation of spatial attributes. This dissertation uses a variety of spatial analyses: maps, clustering and economic models to explain commuting regions and complex spatial interaction, in general.2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
ETH dissertation number: 22409
DBID source: FORM-1426941949
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-010399719
Nebis system number: 010399719
, Killer, Veronika, 2014 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika
Title: Räumliche Modellierung der Pendlerverflechtungen (Spatial Modeling of Commuting Linkage)
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
DBID source: FORM-1418640426
, Killer, Veronika, Fuhrer, Raphael, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Fuhrer, Raphael, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Road accessibility of Germany and Switzerland 1970-2007
Abstract: This study adopts the basic potential approach of accessibility and investigates it at the municipal level of resolution over a long time period for Germany and Switzerland. The availability of his-torical data shaped the scope, geographical bounds and historical timeline of this study. Generat-ing a historically and regionally comparable data set turned out to be a challenge. The accessibil-ity combines the quality of the transport network and the importance or attractiveness of the lo-cations. This accessibility is calculated as a weighted sum of all opportunities reachable from a municipality. Regionally and nationally diverse patterns of accessibility change were detected. The values tended to increase over the years. The accessibility changes most along the important transport corridors and around the major cities in Germany and Switzerland between 1970 and 2007. Accessibility makes the increasing spatial interaction visible, but also shows the areas of concern. The decrease in spatial impedance encourages these patterns.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 936
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Accessibility, Historical data, Germany, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Accessibility, Historical data, Germany, Switzerland
ETH dissertation number: 22 p.
DBID source: FORM-1378457436
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Similarities in residential choice models
Abstract: 2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 827
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zurich
Publication status: Unpublished
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347371733
, Killer, Veronika, 2013 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika
Title: German travel time and network distance matrices 1970-1987-1999-2006
Abstract: This dataset is a small test sample for downloading the full dataset (.zip 3.5 GB) follow the link http://tda.ethz.ch/downloadExternal.html. The dataset is part of to the research project "Spatial accessibility and the dynamics of commuting in Germany and Switzerland 1970 to 2005". The overall objective of this project is to analyse spatially the change of commuting pattern over the past decades and to collect historical data at the spatial level of municipalities. The understanding of commuting pattern is strongly linked to the corresponding travel times of individual and public transport
Published in: Travel Survey Metadata Series
Volume: 29
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1371223403
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Killer, Veronika, Hunziker, Philipp, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Killer, Veronika, Hunziker, Philipp, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Modelling Variation in Transport Infrastructure, Travel Time and Accessibility over Time and Space
Abstract: This paper presents three related projects in accessibility research at ETH Zürich. First, changes in accessibility in Switzerland between 1850 and 2000. Interrelations between changes in travel behaviour, urban sprawl, wealth and labour distribution, and investments in faster transport networks are examined using the concept of accessibility. Second, accessibility changes of Switzerland and Germany are compared, also in terms of methodological differences of bi-national data sets. Estimations of historical impedance factors show a decrease towards recent years, indicating more frequent, longer and cheaper commuting trips in both countries. Overall accessibility has increased in the whole study area, stronger in Western Germany than in Eastern Germany than in Switzerland. Third, an on-going project dealing on the one hand with global transport infrastructure of 1950 and today and on the other hand with Western European transport from 1500 to 2000. In this context, an automated vectorisation program for generating GIS data from historical transport paper maps is presented in detail. Concepts of accessibility and state reach are introduced.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Accessibility, Transport history, Switzerland, Germany, Transport networks, State reach, AMS
Event name: 11th Annual T2M Conference "Transport and Borders" (T2M 2013)
Event date: September 25-28, 2013
Place: Kouvola, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia
Language: English
Keyword: Accessibility, Transport history, Switzerland, Germany, Transport networks, State reach, AMS
DBID source: FORM-1376924313
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2012 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: A residential choice model exploring different types of commuters
Subtitle: First results
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 12th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2012)
Event date: May 2-4, 2012
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1347371428
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Understanding overlapping functional commuting regions with confidence ellipses and social network methods
Abstract: Functional regions are becoming more and more prominent in spatial planning policies. In this study we assume, that it will be problematic to clearly delimitate these regions in the future. Functional regions will increasingly overlap, because of increasing linkages of functional flows.
This study explores different approaches of identifying about these overlapping or fuzzy functional regions, where some municipalities belong to more then one region. Methods are developed and evaluated to quantify and qualify these overlaps. Two methods bring together the perspective of statistical and social network analysis. The first method is an enhancement of the bivariate confidence ellipse. The social network method used to sub-divide large social networks, community detection.
The results vary according to the chosen method. Generally, overlaps can be analysed on different hierarchy levels. If the functional overlaps of some neighbouring municipalities are heigh, they will be aggregated to a functional region on a higher hierarchy level. The confidence interval method can be interpreted as the lowest hierarchy level. The methods of social networks show different hierarchies at higher levels.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 714
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Commuting region, Travel-to-Work-Area, Confidence interval,, Social networks, Community detection, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
Keyword: Commuting region, Travel-to-Work-Area, Confidence interval,, Social networks, Community detection, Switzerland
DBID source: FORM-1319995763
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-010189042
Nebis system number: 010189042
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Functional similarities in spatially correlated location choice models
Subtitle: An idea sketch
Abstract: This work analyses the residential location choice problem. Location choice often is regionally clustered. The rules building up this clusters and the implementation in an appropriate model, investigates this work. Additionally to structural and spatial similarities or neighbourhoods, this work especially incorporates functional ones. The functional component is important in residential location choice models. For example, functional commuting regions and travel times are considered as functional connections. Most studies examine one spatial level only. This study suggests a spatial neighbourhood as a three hierarchical level concept – functional commuting region, accessibility including travel time, and mail delivery areas – for application in a Swiss residential choice model. We bring the application problems and theoretical concepts together and think about the appropriate representation of a residential location choice model of Switzerland. Most models use a multinomial logit (MNL) model to analyse this spatial problem, because of large set of alternatives. But the MNL model cannot count for unobserved similarities among alternatives. We give a short literature review about recent studies for residential choice models which allow spatial correlation between alternatives. This adoption is often done by GEV (generalized extreme values) models, a nested logit specification, or can be solved by implementing similarity measure into the utility function, or by a spatial probit model. These study focuses on functional closeness of a correlation coefficient not only assuming correlation in adjacent zones.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 678
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Location choice model, Spatial correlation, Functional characteristics
Event name: 11th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2011)
Event date: May 11-14, 2011
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Location choice model, Spatial correlation, Functional characteristics
DBID source: FORM-1305894379
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006467344
Nebis system number: 006467344
, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2011 >>
Author(s): Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Räumliche Dynamik des Pendelverkehrs in Deutschland und der Schweiz
Subtitle: Die Beispiele München und Zürich
Abstract: It is well known among European transport researchers that cross-municipality commuting increased constantly over the years. Less and less people live and work within the same municipality. The average distances of commuting rose markedly through recent decades. This paper explores this trend in new ways focusing on the commuting patterns of two agglomerations in Germany and Switzerland: Munich and Zurich. The analysis is based on data of commuting trips at the spatial scale of municipalities for two points in time. In order to compare the shifts in commutes for both agglomerations we use different indicators considering in- and out-commuting trips jointly. Our results are in line with prior studies from Germany, Switzerland and abroad. We clearly find a trend of increasing shares of in- and outcommuting trips. The intensification of commuting goes along with a rise in commuting distances over the years.We thus can observe expanding commuter sheds in Munich and Zurich as well as in other agglomerations within both countries. The interregional comparison shows somewhat higher degrees of commuting volumes and distances in the case of Munich. In the Zurich region municipalities with high levels of in- and out-commuting trips are frequently located along motorways and/or in close neighbourhood to major urban centers. We can not detect similar patterns in the region of Munich.
Published in: DISP : the planning review
Volume: 47
Issue: 184
Pages: 12 - 28
ISSN: 0251-3625
Publication date / Date received: 2011-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1328025572
DOI: 10.1080/02513625.2011.10557121
Nebis system number: 000981948
, Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Author(s): Vitins, Basil, Killer, Veronika, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Title: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Subtitle: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Abstract: 2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 645
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Neuenburg
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1286059190
, Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus, 2010 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Vitins, Basil, Braun, N., Gmünder, Markus
Title: Agglomerationsdefinition Schweiz
Subtitle: Vertiefte Abklärung der Eignung von Erreichbarkeitsdaten als Substitut für die Pendlerdaten im Rahmen einer Agglomerationsdefinition für die Schweiz
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 647
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Neuenburg
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1286058905
, Killer, Veronika, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Modellierung historischer Reisezeiten im motorisierten Individualverkehr in Deutschland
Abstract: Die Strasseninfrastruktur ist während der letzten 40 Jahre stark ausgebaut worden. Der vorliegende Bericht beschreibt die Datengewinnung zur Abbildung der historischen Reisezeiten und Netzdistanzen im motorisierten Individualverkehr von 1970 bis 2006 in Deutschland.

The road infrastructure has been greatly expanded during the past 40 years. This report describes the data collection and modelling of the historical travel times and network distances of private transport from 1970 to 2006 in Germany.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 629
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Historisches Strassennetz, Reisezeiten, Deutschland, Historical road network, Travel times, Germany
Language: German
Review status: Peer reviewed
Keyword: Historisches Strassennetz, Reisezeiten, Deutschland, Historical road network, Travel times, Germany
DBID source: FORM-1286365442
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, 2010 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian
Title: Understanding Regional Effects of Travel Times in Switzerland and Germany 1970-2005
Abstract: This study points out the effect of road infrastructure improvement between 1970 and 2005/06 and the resulting change of travel time in Germany and Switzerland. Reconsidering the interaction between the transportation system and land use, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about induced travel and infrastructure capacity. The impact of highway capacity expansion on land use has been studied worldwide focusing on urban areas. This study goes one step further. We detect changes in suburban and rural areas by this national comparison.
The generation of a historical travel time dataset applies a method developed for Switzerland in previous studies and is adjusted for Germany according to its political, structural and topographical situation. The method is based on a historical network and estimated mean car speeds on different road types varying between densely or sparsely populated areas. Travel time matrices between all municipalities in Germany and Switzerland are calculated and validated by a regional comparison. Three indexes are developed to detect regional effects of travel time. The results are regionally segmented by a spatial cluster analyses named Getis-Ord's Gi* statistics. The spatial overview of the three travel time indexes takes into account the national and regional level. The historical travel time dataset is successfully validated. This useful data is needed for later investigation on commuting behaviour.2
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Event name: 50th ERSA Congress
Event date: August 19-23, 2010
Place: Jönköping, Sweden
Language: English
Review status: Peer reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1281362437
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006125600
Nebis system number: 006125600
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: The spatial and temporal change of commuting regions
Abstract: Commuting distances and the complexity of commuter flows have increased steadily over the years, effecting transport emission and urban sprawl. This paper measures and visualises the explicit spatial impact of commuting. Based on human activity space and market area concepts, three measures of commuting regions, average commuting distance (I), commuting intensity (II), and confidence interval ellipse (III) are developed. A commuting region is not static. It changes over the years. The determinants of spatial change of commuting regions are modelled across all communities of Switzerland to evaluate the three measures. To better understand the complex commuting structure, the spatial effects of in-commuting and out-commuting are analysed separately. The independent variables of the two explorative models are organised into socio-demographic characteristics of the residential community, economic characteristics of the workplace, and morphological structure. The resulting effects vary between decades and commuting direction, mainly influenced by spatial structure, the distance to the nearest urban centre, large, medium or small, and by the neighbouring communities. This approach contributes to a better understanding of the behaviour of a functional region, a delimitation approach that is becoming more important next to traditional administrative regional boundaries.2
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Geographie und Karten|Geography and Maps
Event name: 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Event date: January 10-14, 2010
Place: Washington, D.C.
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: PP-51911
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005899571
Nebis system number: 005899571
, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2010 >>
Author(s): Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Räumliche Dynamik des Pendelverkehrs in Deutschland und der Schweiz
Subtitle: Das Beispiel München und Zürich
Abstract: It is well known among European transport researchers that cross-municipality commuting increased constantly over the years. Less and less people live and work within the same municipality. The average distances of commuting rose markedly through recent decades. This paper explores this trend in new ways focusing on the commuting patterns of two agglomerations in Germany and Switzerland: Munich and Zurich. The analysis is based on data of commuting trips at the spatial scale of municipalities for two points in time. In order to compare the shifts in commutes for both agglomerations we use different indicators considering in- and out-commuting trips jointly. Our results are in line with prior studies from Germany, Switzerland and abroad. We clearly find a trend of increasing shares of in- and out-commuting trips. The intensification of commuting goes along with a rise in commuting distances over the years. We thus can observe expanding commuter sheds in Munich and Zurich as well as in other agglomerations within both countries. The interregional comparison shows somewhat higher degrees of commuting volumes and distances in the case of Munich. In the Zurich region municipalities with high levels of in- and out-commuting trips are frequently located along motorways and/or in close neighbourhood to major urban centres. We can not detect similar patterns in the region of Munich.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 653
Publication date / Date received: 2010-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
Review status: Internally reviewed
DBID source: FORM-1312123580
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-006224229
Nebis system number: 004231702
, Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W., 2009 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Mapping overlapping community areas
Abstract: This article focuses on mapping and delineation of commuting areas. Commuting distances and the complexity of commuter flows have increased steadily over the years. A reasonable gener- alisation for the representation of the commuting areas for different purpose is needed. Different cartographic representations, linear and 2-dimensional, overlapping and non-overlapping, are discussed. A commuting area describes a 2-dimensional "sphere of influence" of an urban core. Traditional procedures for delimiting these areas assign each municipality to a single catchment area. One possibility for defining functional areas is the intramax algorithm (FLOWMAP 7.2). This algorithm ignores the overlaps and the differentiation between incoming and outgoing flows. A classical method of transport planners is mapping of interaction where origin and des- tination is connected with a straight line. Alternatively, methods are generating measurable overlapping commuting areas of inflows. Four different stages of, from a morphological to a circular shaped area, are discussed. Additionally, various overlaps between the catchment areas of centres of equal and unequal rank can be determined.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 555
Publication date / Date received: 2009-05-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Commuting areas, Overlaps, Cartography, Generalisation, ETH Zurich, Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT)
Language: English
Keyword: Commuting areas, Overlaps, Cartography, Generalisation, ETH Zurich, Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT)
DBID source: FORM-1361257718
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-a-005800372
Nebis system number: 005800372
, Killer, Veronika, 2008 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika
Title: Räumliche Erreichbarkeiten und die Dynamik der Pendlerverflechtungen in Deutschland und der Schweiz 1970-2005
Publication date / Date received: 2008-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 34. Kongress Deutscher Gesellschaft für Soziologie
Event date: October 6-10, 2008
Place: Jena, Germany
Language: German
Review status: Unknown
DBID source: FORM-1306344504

 

 

 

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