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, Sarlas, Georgios, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Author(s): Sarlas, Georgios, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Quantifying the agglomeration effects of Swiss public transport between 2000 and 2010
Abstract: This conference contribution deals with the economic effects of public transport supply improvements on productivity, generally referred to as agglomeration effects. To the knowledge of the authors, there has not been a systematic study regarding these effects in Switzerland. To enable that, the development of productivity on a municipal level between 2000 and 2010 is regressed on variables, such as private and public transport accessibility, and variables describing the local economic structure. Productivity is operationalized by the average amount of salaries paid at the location of their generation. Different regression models are tested to account for the spatial and temporal character of the data. We conclude that agglomeration effects are present, quantifiable, and for the case of public transport supply they are found to take values between 1 and 3% for the nationwide spatial analysis level, while for the agglomeration areas the effects are significantly higher and take values between 2 and 4%. Moreover, elasticity values exhibit variation over the analysis period reflecting a differentiated dynamic of the externalities that can result due to the public transport improvements.2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Agglomeration effects, Public transport improvement, Externalities, Spatial econometrics, Geographically weighted regression
Event name: 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2015)
Event date: April 15-17, 2015
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Agglomeration effects, Public transport improvement, Externalities, Spatial econometrics, Geographically weighted regression
DBID source: FORM-1432298052
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Walker, Philipp, Sarlas, Georgios, Axhausen, Kay W., Neuenschwander, René, 2015 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Walker, Philipp, Sarlas, Georgios, Axhausen, Kay W., Neuenschwander, René
Title: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte des öffentlichen Verkehrs mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verdichtungs- und Agglomerationseffekte - Eine empirische Studie im Schweizer Kontext
Abstract: Diese Studie hat folgende Ziele: Die Agglomerationseffekte (wider economic benefits) erfassbar machen, sie für die Schweiz zu quantifizieren und ihre räumliche Dynamik zu analysieren. Dabei liegt der Fokus auf dem Öffentlichen Verkehr. Dazu werden mittels Strukturdaten, Erreichbarkeitsdaten und wirtschaftlichen Daten für den Zeitraum 2000, 2005 und 2010 auf Gemeindeebene verschiedene Regressionen geschätzt. Deren Resultate zeigen die folgenden Effekte für die Schweiz: Eine Verbesserung der ÖV-Erreichbarkeit um 100% führt zu einer Produktivitätssteigerung von durchschnittlich 1 bis 2%. In urban geprägten Gegenden ist dieser Effekt in etwa doppelt so hoch. Im Vergleich zu anderen Einflussvariablen auf die Produktivität liegt diese Elastizität im mittleren Einflussbereich und ist darum wichtig. Sie schwankt jedoch regional. Mit Hilfe eines Shift-Share-Ansatzes wird weiter ermittelt, welche Regionen in welcher Form von einer besseren ÖV-Erschliessung wirtschaftlich profitieren kÖnnen. Eine verbesserte ÖV-Erreichbarkeit führte zwischen 2000 und 2010 insbesondere in grossen und urbanen Gemeinden zu einer Zunahme der Arbeitsplätze. In kleineren und ländlicheren Gemeinden ist dagegen tendenziell ein negativer Zusammenhang festzustellen. Umgekehrt ist der Zusammenhang bei den Arbeitskräften, also der WohnbevÖlkerung: Eine Verbesserung der ÖV-Erreichbarkeit führt in kleineren Gemeinden tendenziell zu einer Zunahme der wohnhaften Arbeitskräfte.2
Book title: Jahrbuch 2015 Schweizerische Verkehrswirtschaft
Pages: 29 - 42
ISBN: 3-906532-27-5
ISSN: 1423-4459
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: St. Gallen
Publication status: Published
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1442389893
Nebis system number: 000978592
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W., 2015 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: New Historical Data: The Reconstruction of 1950's Global Road Network Using American Army Maps
Abstract: This paper presents a new historical road network data set, capturing conditions in 1950 and covering large part of the world. Its generation is documented in detail, its features are reported and Nigeria is employed as an example of a geographical information system used to generate historical travel times. This exercise should serve as a starting point for further (historical) transport studies. The main sources of this data set are former US Army Map Service (AMS) maps and a range of historical statistics. As far as the authors can ascertain, such comprehensive and detailed historical transport data has not been available until this point, but it now enables examination of various historical and current transport-related research questions using spatial and time-variant data. The purpose of this paper is: first, to introduce this historical road network data and to position it in the existing literature and research tradition; second, to explain how the network was generated; third, to present the authors' approach to model historical speeds and travel times and; fourth, show how to use such information by applying it in the Nigeria case study.2
Book title: TRB 94th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers
Pages: 15-3145
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (TRB2015)
Event date: January 11-15, 2015
Place: Washington, DC, USA
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1422896557
, Fuhrer, Raphael, 2015 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael
Title: Modelling Historical Accessibility with International Transport Data
Abstract: This paper links transport infrastructure with state evolvement. The author claims that transport infrastructure plays a major role in the organisation and evolvement of states and nations. There are two routes how these two things link together: Direct, transport infrastructure enables state reach, the state is present and able to change people's live. Indirect, transport infrastructure governs spatial economies, as agglomeration effects take place. This influences urbanisation and land use patterns, which leads to a more efficient organisation of the economy. Finally, the productivity of a spatial (national) economy increases and the state gains economical power, which in turn allows the state to foster its presence by offering more public services. First, the general theory and motivation is explained. Second, the data and research concept is presented, since historical data between 1500 and today is used. Third, information on historical transport data of 1950 and earlier is given and sources are discussed. Fourth, two important elements within the overall concept are detailed by reporting on two recent research projects. The first one deals with the reconstruction of Nigeria's 1950 road network and its function as a proxy of state reach. The second one deals with the quantification of agglomeration effects by public transport accessibility increase in Switzerland between 2000 and 2010. Fifth, the next steps are introduced.2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Ascona
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Accessibility, Historical transport data, Agglomeration effects, State reach, Infrastructure state
Event name: 15th Swiss Transport Research Conference (STRC 2015)
Event date: April 15-17, 2015
Place: Ascona, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Accessibility, Historical transport data, Agglomeration effects, State reach, Infrastructure state
DBID source: FORM-1432373300
, Fuhrer, Raphael, 2015 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael
Title: Modelling Historical Accessibility and Its Effects in Space
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 16th International Conference of Historical Geographers (ICHG)
Event date: July 5-10, 2015
Place: London, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1446837637
, Axhausen, Kay W., Bischof, Tamara, Fuhrer, Raphael, Neuenschwander, René, Sarlas, Georgios, Walker, Philipp, 2015 >>
Author(s): Axhausen, Kay W., Bischof, Tamara, Fuhrer, Raphael, Neuenschwander, René, Sarlas, Georgios, Walker, Philipp
Title: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte des öffentlichen Verkehrs mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verdichtungs- und Agglomerationseffekte
Abstract: Für die Schweiz gibt es noch keine empirischen Untersuchungen zu den agglomeration economies, ein Nutzenelement des Verkehrs, das in den letzten Jahren intensiv diskutiert wurde. Die Hypothese ist, dass durch eine verbesserte Erreichbarkeit von Agglomerationen oder anderen Gebieten ein grösserer Arbeits-, Zuliefer- und Absatzmarkt entsteht, der zu zusätzlichen Wachstumseffekten führt. Dieser Effekt ist teilweise als zusätzlicher Nutzen (wider economic benefit) zu verstehen, der über die üblicherweise in Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen festgestellten Zeitgewinne und anderen Nutzenelemente hinausgeht.2
Published in: Arbeitsbericht IVT
Volume: 1079
Publication date / Date received: 2015-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Accepted
Language: German
DBID source: FORM-1433780835
, Sarlas, Georgios, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Sarlas, Georgios, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Estimating the Agglomeration Effects of Public Transport Improvements: The Case of Switzerland
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Leeds
Publication status: Unpublished
Event name: 3rd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART 2014)
Event date: September 10-12, 2014
Place: Leeds, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1434979586
, Sarlas, Georgios, Axhausen, Kay W., Fuhrer, Raphael, 2014 >>
Author(s): Sarlas, Georgios, Axhausen, Kay W., Fuhrer, Raphael
Title: Estimating the agglomeration effects of public transport improvements
Subtitle: The case of Switzerland
Abstract: 2
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Published
Event name: 3rd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART 2014)
Event date: September 10-12, 2014
Place: Leeds, UK
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1411042390
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W., 2014 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: New Historical Data
Subtitle: The Reconstruction of 1950's Global Road Network Using American Army Maps
Abstract: In this paper, a new data set of a historical road network is presented. It represents the situation of 1950 and covers the whole globe. Its generation is documented in detail, its features are reported and, using it as a geographical information system in order to generate historical travel times in the example of Nigeria, its usefulness in (historical) transport studies is demonstrated. The main sources of this data set are maps of the former US Army Map Service and a range of historical statistics. To the knowledge of the authors, such historical transport data has not been available so far, which enables to examine various historical and current transport related research questions using spatial and time-variant data.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 1025
Publication date / Date received: 2014-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1409840512
, Killer, Veronika, Fuhrer, Raphael, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Killer, Veronika, Fuhrer, Raphael, Guth, Dennis, Holz-Rau, Christian, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Road accessibility of Germany and Switzerland 1970-2007
Abstract: This study adopts the basic potential approach of accessibility and investigates it at the municipal level of resolution over a long time period for Germany and Switzerland. The availability of his-torical data shaped the scope, geographical bounds and historical timeline of this study. Generat-ing a historically and regionally comparable data set turned out to be a challenge. The accessibil-ity combines the quality of the transport network and the importance or attractiveness of the lo-cations. This accessibility is calculated as a weighted sum of all opportunities reachable from a municipality. Regionally and nationally diverse patterns of accessibility change were detected. The values tended to increase over the years. The accessibility changes most along the important transport corridors and around the major cities in Germany and Switzerland between 1970 and 2007. Accessibility makes the increasing spatial interaction visible, but also shows the areas of concern. The decrease in spatial impedance encourages these patterns.2
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 936
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Accessibility, Historical data, Germany, Switzerland
Language: English
Keyword: Accessibility, Historical data, Germany, Switzerland
ETH dissertation number: 22 p.
DBID source: FORM-1378457436
, Hunziker, P., Fuhrer, Raphael, 2013 >>
Author(s): Hunziker, P., Fuhrer, Raphael
Title: AMS Transport Network Vectorisation
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 931
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Accepted
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1376929634
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Killer, Veronika, Hunziker, Philipp, Axhausen, Kay W., 2013 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Killer, Veronika, Hunziker, Philipp, Axhausen, Kay W.
Title: Modelling Variation in Transport Infrastructure, Travel Time and Accessibility over Time and Space
Abstract: This paper presents three related projects in accessibility research at ETH Zürich. First, changes in accessibility in Switzerland between 1850 and 2000. Interrelations between changes in travel behaviour, urban sprawl, wealth and labour distribution, and investments in faster transport networks are examined using the concept of accessibility. Second, accessibility changes of Switzerland and Germany are compared, also in terms of methodological differences of bi-national data sets. Estimations of historical impedance factors show a decrease towards recent years, indicating more frequent, longer and cheaper commuting trips in both countries. Overall accessibility has increased in the whole study area, stronger in Western Germany than in Eastern Germany than in Switzerland. Third, an on-going project dealing on the one hand with global transport infrastructure of 1950 and today and on the other hand with Western European transport from 1500 to 2000. In this context, an automated vectorisation program for generating GIS data from historical transport paper maps is presented in detail. Concepts of accessibility and state reach are introduced.
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Accessibility, Transport history, Switzerland, Germany, Transport networks, State reach, AMS
Event name: 11th Annual T2M Conference "Transport and Borders" (T2M 2013)
Event date: September 25-28, 2013
Place: Kouvola, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia
Language: English
Keyword: Accessibility, Transport history, Switzerland, Germany, Transport networks, State reach, AMS
DBID source: FORM-1376924313
, Fuhrer, Raphael, Hunziker, P., 2013 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael, Hunziker, P.
Title: Cartographic Transport Infrastructure Data Survey
Abstract: This document assesses cartographic data sources on historical and current transport infrastructure for potential use in the ETH48 project, "The effect of resource endowments and limited state capacity on political conflict". Specifically, the listed sources are assessed with respect to their potential for systematic, quantitative data analysis on the basis of digitized cartographic material. According to evaluation criteria defined by the authors, the combination of AMS maps and the data material offered by the Open Street Map project serves the purpose of constructing a time-variant transport infrastructure data set best. This working paper provides a profile for every map source and informations regarding access and suitability. Some key legal issues are discussed as well.
Published in: Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung
Volume: 930
Publication date / Date received: 2013-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Accepted
Language: English
DBID source: FORM-1376929506
, Fuhrer, Raphael, 2012 >>
Author(s): Fuhrer, Raphael
Title: A Hedonic Rental Price Model for the Canton Zurich
Abstract: Two types of hedonic rental price models are applied to the Canton Zurich in this thesis. The first one is a spatially autoregressive model, the second one a geographically weighted regres- sion. The focus is on environmental variables including different distance and area based land use related variables as well as visibility, noise and air pollution. In addition, an attempt to in- troduce qualitative environmental aspects is made. Results show that environmental variables are important and variables related to lakes (distance, area in neighbourhood and visibility), parks (distance), panorama of mountains and noise are most important amongst environmental variables. Tenants are willing to pay higher monthly rents for larger flats (18 CHF/m2), flats built after 1991 (185 CHF), proximity to parks (100 CHF/km) and lakes (13 CHF/km), for street (2.50 CHF/dB(A)) and railway (3.50 CHF/dB(A)) noise reduction and for visibility of lake surface (0.72 CHF/ha) and mountaintops (10.30 CHF/top). In order to measure ecosystem services, more accurate qualitative data is needed, as the approaches used in this thesis suggest. Nevertheless, results show that improvements in environmental conditions may help to tackle trends such as increasing living space per person or urban sprawl and the corresponding in- crease in travel distance per person and day.2
Publication date / Date received: 2012-01-01
Publication status: Zürich
Publication status: Published
Subjects: Rental prices, Hedonic model,, Geographically weighted regression,, Environmental variables
Language: English
Keyword: Rental prices, Hedonic model,, Geographically weighted regression,, Environmental variables
DBID source: FORM-1358779796

 

 

 

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